Flowchart: Preparation: mTOR

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Text Box: mTORC2


Text Box: Rheb

Text Box: mLST8


Cancer:

Autoimunity

Text Box: mTOR

 

 


Text Box: PKCText Box: Rho,Rac

Text Box: Akt


Text Box: PKB

 



Rapamycin derivatives reduce mTORC2 signaling and inhibit AKT activation in AML.

     Zeng Z, Sarbassov DD, Samudio IJ, Yee KW, Munsell MF, Jackson CE, Giles FJ, Sabatini DM, Andreeff M, Konopleva M.

Section of Molecular Hematology and Therapy, Dept of Stem Cell Transplantation & Cellular Therapy University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, United States.

The mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2) containing mTOR and rictor is thought to be rapamycin-insensitive, and was recently shown to regulate the pro-survival kinase AKT by phosphorylation on Ser473. We investigated the molecular effects of mTOR inhibition by the rapamycin derivatives (RDs) temsirolimus (CCI-779) and everolimus (RAD001) in AML cells. Unexpectedly, RDs not only inhibited the mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) containing mTOR and raptor with decreased p70S6K, 4EPB1 phosphorylation and glut-1 mRNA, but also blocked AKT activation via inhibition of mTORC2 formation. This resulted in suppression of phosphorylation of the direct AKT substrate FKHR and decreased transcription of D-cyclins in AML cells. Similar observations were made in samples from patients with hematological malignancies who received RDs in clinical studies. Our study provides first evidence that rapamycin derivatives inhibit AKT signaling in primary AML cells both in vitro and in vivo, and support the therapeutic potential of mTOR inhibition strategies in leukemias.

PMID: 17179228 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Prime-boost vaccination with plasmid and adenovirus gene vaccines control HER2/neu+ metastatic breast cancer in mice.

Wang X, Wang JP, Rao XM, Price JE, Zhou HS, Lachman LB.

Department of Experimental Therapeutics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA. xiaoyanwang@mdanderson.org

INTRODUCTION: Once metastasis has occurred, the possibility of completely curing breast cancer is unlikely, particularly for the 30 to 40% of cancers overexpressing the gene for HER2/neu. A vaccine targeting p185, the protein product of the HER2/neu gene, could have therapeutic application by controlling the growth and metastasis of highly aggressive HER2/neu+ cells. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of two gene vaccines targeting HER2/neu in preventive and therapeutic tumor models. METHODS: The mouse breast cancer cell line A2L2, which expresses the gene for rat HER2/neu and hence p185, was injected into the mammary fat pad of mice as a model of solid tumor growth or was injected intravenously as a model of lung metastasis. SINCP-neu, a plasmid containing Sindbis virus genes and the gene for rat HER2/neu, and Adeno-neu, an E1,E2a-deleted adenovirus also containing the gene for rat HER2/neu, were tested as preventive and therapeutic vaccines. RESULTS: Vaccination with SINCP-neu or Adeno-neu before tumor challenge with A2L2 cells significantly inhibited the growth of the cells injected into the mammary fat or intravenously. Vaccination 2 days after tumor challenge with either vaccine was ineffective in both tumor models. However, therapeutic vaccination in a prime-boost protocol with SINCP-neu followed by Adeno-neu significantly prolonged the overall survival rate of mice injected intravenously with the tumor cells. Naive mice vaccinated using the same prime-boost protocol demonstrated a strong serum immunoglobulin G response and p185-specific cellular immunity, as shown by the results of ELISPOT (enzyme-linked immunospot) analysis for IFNgamma. CONCLUSION: We report herein that vaccination of mice with a plasmid gene vaccine and an adenovirus gene vaccine, each containing the gene for HER2/neu, prevented growth of a HER2/neu-expressing breast cancer cell line injected into the mammary fat pad or intravenously. Sequential administration of the vaccines in a prime-boost protocol was therapeutically effective when tumor cells were injected intravenously before the vaccination. The vaccines induced high levels of both cellular and humoral immunity as determined by in vitro assessment. These findings indicate that clinical evaluation of these vaccines, particularly when used sequentially in a prime-boost protocol, is justified.

PMID: 16168101 [PubMed - in process]

 

 

Fut Oncol. 2005 Dec;1(6):841-9.

Related Articles, Links


Role of HER2/HER3 co-receptor in breast carcinogenesis.

Way TD, Lin JK.

1Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Section 1, Jen-ai Road, Taipei 10018, Taiwan. , 2 jklin@ha.mc.ntu.edu.tw.

ErbB receptors are essential mediators of cell proliferation and differentiation. Their aberrant activation is associated with the development and severity of many cancers. Homo- and heterodimerization of ErbB receptors result in a wide variety of cellular signal transduction. Dimerization of human epidermal growth-factor receptor (HER)2 and HER3 occurs frequently and is a preferred heterodimer. The HER2/HER3 dimer constitutes a high affinity co-receptor for heregulin, which is capable of potent mitogenic signaling. HER3 is a kinase-defective protein that is phosphorylated by HER2. Tyrosine phosphorylated HER3 is able to directly couple to phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase, a lipid kinase involved in the proliferation, survival, adhesion and motility of tumor cells. The authors' research provides mechanistic evidence that apigenin induces apoptosis by depleting the HER2 protein and, in turn, suppressing the signaling of the HER2/HER3-phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway. This indicates that inhibition of HER2/HER3 heterodimer function may be an especially effective and unique strategy for blocking the HER2-mediated carcinogenesis of breast cancer cells.

PMID: 16556064 [PubMed - in process]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Combined Radioimmunotherapy and Chemotherapy of Breast Tumors with Y-90-Labeled Anti-Her2 and Anti-CEA Antibodies with Taxol.

Crow DM, Williams L, Colcher D, Wong JY, Raubitschek A, Shively JE.

Department of Radioimmunotherapy, Division of Radiation Oncology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California 91010, Division of Radiology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California 91010, and Division of Immunology, Beckman Research Institute of the City of Hope, Duarte, California 91010.

Because breast cancer cells often express either Her2/neu or carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) or both, these tumor markers are good targets for radioimmunotherapy using Y-90-labeled antibodies. We performed studies on nude mi

ce bearing xenografts from MCF7, a cell line that has low Her2 and CEA expression, to more accurately reflect the more usual situation in breast cancer. Although uptake of In-111 anti-CEA into tumors was lower than that for In-111-labeled anti-Her2, radioimmunotherapy (RIT) with Y-90 anti-CEA was equivalent to that of Y-90 anti-Her2. When either Y-90 antibody was combined with a split-dose treatment with Taxol, the antitumor effect was greater than with either agent alone. When Y-90 anti-CEA was combined with a single dose of Taxol, the results were equivalent to the split-dose regimen. RIT plus cold Herceptin had no additional effects on tumor size reduction over RIT alone. When animals were first treated with Y-90 anti-Her2 and imaged 1-2 weeks later with In-111 anti-CEA or anti-Her2, tumor uptake was higher for anti-CEA and improved over tumor uptake with no prior RIT. These results suggest that a split dose of RIT with anti-Her2 antibody followed by anti-CEA antibody would be more effective than a single dose of either. This prediction was partially confirmed in a controlled study comparing single- vs split-dose anti-Her2 RIT followed by either anti-Her2 or anti-CEA RIT. These studies suggest that combined RIT and Taxol therapy are suitable in breast cancers expressing either low amounts of Her2 or CEA, thus expanding the number of eligible patients for combined therapies. They further suggest that split-dose RIT using different combinations of Y-90-labeled antibodies is effective in antitumor therapy.

PMID: 16173788 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




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Phase I clinical study of the recombinant antibody toxin scFv(FRP5)-ETA specific for the ErbB2/HER2 receptor in patients with advanced solid malignomas.

von Minckwitz G, Harder S, Hovelmann S, Jager E, Al-Batran SE, Loibl S, Atmaca A, Cimpoiasu C, Neumann A, Abera A, Knuth A, Kaufmann M, Jager D, Maurer AB, Wels WS.

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital Frankfurt, Germany.

INTRODUCTION: ScFv(FRP5)-ETA is a recombinant antibody toxin with binding specificity for ErbB2 (HER2). It consists of an N-terminal single-chain antibody fragment (scFv), genetically linked to truncated Pseudomonas exotoxin A (ETA). Potent antitumoral activity of scFv(FRP5)-ETA against ErbB2-overexpressing tumor cells was previously demonstrated in vitro and in animal models. Here we report the first systemic application of scFv(FRP5)-ETA in human cancer patients. METHODS: We have performed a phase I dose-finding study, with the objective to assess the maximum tolerated dose and the dose-limiting toxicity of intravenously injected scFv(FRP5)-ETA. Eighteen patients suffering from ErbB2-expressing metastatic breast cancers, prostate cancers, head and neck cancer, non small cell lung cancer, or transitional cell carcinoma were treated. Dose levels of 2, 4, 10, 12.5, and 20 microg/kg scFv(FRP5)-ETA were administered as five daily infusions each for two consecutive weeks. RESULTS: No hematologic, renal, and/or cardiovascular toxicities were noted in any of the patients treated. However, transient elevation of liver enzymes was observed, and considered dose limiting, in one of six patients at the maximum tolerated dose of 12.5 microg/kg, and in two of three patients at 20 microg/kg. Fifteen minutes after injection, peak concentrations of more than 100 ng/ml scFv(FRP5)-ETA were obtained at a dose of 10 microg/kg, indicating that predicted therapeutic levels of the recombinant protein can be applied without inducing toxic side effects. Induction of antibodies against scFv(FRP5)-ETA was observed 8 days after initiation of therapy in 13 patients investigated, but only in five of these patients could neutralizing activity be detected. Two patients showed stable disease and in three patients clinical signs of activity in terms of signs and symptoms were observed (all treated at doses > or = 10 microg/kg). Disease progression occurred in 11 of the patients. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that systemic therapy with scFv(FRP5)-ETA can be safely administered up to a maximum tolerated dose of 12.5 microg/kg in patients with ErbB2-expressing tumors, justifying further clinical development.

 

 

 

 

 

 



PMID: 15611632 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

 

 

 

Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 show different expressivity wit

h respect to cancer risk, and allelic heterogeneity may be present in both genes. We collected 179 pedigrees with identified germline mutation (104 BRCA1 and 75 BRCA2), ascertained in six collaborating centers of the Italian Consortium for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer. Significant heterogeneity was detected for several variables, and a logistic regression model including age of diagnosis in the proband, presence of ovarian cancer in the family, presence of prostate or pancreatic cancer in the family, and presence of male breast cancer in the family proved to be effective in predicting the presence of a mutation in a gene rather than the other. Excess of familial aggregation of both breast and ovarian cancer was observed in both genes. Proportion of ovarian cancer was increased in the 5' portion of BRCA1, and presence of prostate or pancreatic cancer in a family was correlated with presence of ovarian cancer in BRCA2
PMID: 14531499 [PubMed - in process]