Previous studies suggest that localization of tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-associated factor (TRAF) family members is important for regulating their signal transduction. During a screen for TRAF3-associated proteins that potentially alter TRAF3 subcellular localization and enable signal transduction, we identified a novel protein, T3JAM (TRAF3-interacting Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-activating modulator). This protein associates specifically with TRAF3 but not other TRAF family members. Coexpression of T3JAM with TRAF3 recruits TRAF3 to the detergent-insoluble fraction. More importantly, T3JAM and TRAF3 synergistically activate JNK but not nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB. Our studies indicate that T3JAM may function as an adapter molecule that specifically regulates TRAF3-mediated JNK activation.