Flowchart: Preparation: SRY

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Text Box: SRY  

                                                      

 


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Text Box: Sox9
 

 


       

 

5/12/2007/-14          

 

Am J Pathol. 2007 Apr 19; [Epub ahead of print] Links

SRY-Related HMG Box 9 Regulates the Expression of Col4a2 through Transactivating Its Enhancer Element in Mesangial Cells.

P     Sumi E, Iehara N, Akiyama H, Matsubara T, Mima A, Kanamori H, Fukatsu A, Salant DJ, Kita T, Arai H, Doi T.

From the Departments of Nephrology,* Orthopaedics, Cardiovascular Medicine, and Geriatric Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan; the Department of Medicine, Evans Biomedical Research Center, Boston University Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts; and the Department of Clinical Biology and Medicine, Tokushima University School of Medicine, Tokushima, Japan.

Accumulation of alpha1(IV) and alpha2(IV) collagen is one of the characteristic pathological changes in glomerulosclerosis. Although the Col4a2 gene is known to have a 0.3-kb critical enhancer element with the GAACAAT motif, which transcription factor binds and transactivates this motif has not been identified. In this study, we found that SRY-related HMG box 9 (SOX9) was bound to the GAACAAT motif in the Col4a2 enhancer in vitro and in vivo in mesangial cells. SOX9 strongly activated this enhancer when cotransfected with Col4a2 enhancer-promoter construct in mesangial cells and Swiss/3T3 cells. Mutation in the GAACAAT motif eliminated the activation by SOX9. Furthermore, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) treatment induced the expression of SOX9 and Col4a2, and a small interfering RNA against SOX9 reduced Col4a2 expression induced by TGF-beta treatment in mesangial cells. In vivo, we found that the expression of SOX9 was dramatically increased along with the expression of TGF-beta and Col4a2 in mouse nephrotoxic nephritis. These results indicate that SOX9 is essential for Col4a2 expression in mesangial cells and might be involved in the accumulation of alpha2(IV) collagen in experimental nephritis.

PMID: 17446313 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2007 Feb 26;7:6.Click here to read Click here to read  Links

Sry delivery to the adrenal medulla increases blood pressure and adrenal medullary tyrosine hydroxylase of normotensive WKY rats.

P     Ely D, Milsted A, Bertram J, Ciotti M, Dunphy G, Turner ME.

Department of Biology, University of Akron, Akron, OH 44325, USA. Ely1@uakron.edu

BACKGROUND: Our laboratory has shown that a locus on the SHR Y chromosome increases blood pressure (BP) in the SHR rat and in WKY rats that had the SHR Y chromosome locus crossed into their genome (SHR/y rat). A potential candidate for this Y chromosome hypertension locus is Sry, a gene that encodes a transcription factor that is responsible for testes development and the Sry protein may affect other target genes. METHODS: The following study examined if exogenous Sry would elevate adrenal Th, adrenal catecholamines, plasma catecholamines and blood pressure. We delivered 10 mug of either the expression construct, Sry1/pcDNA 3.1, or control vector into the adrenal medulla of WKY rats by electroporation. Blood pressure was measured by the tail cuff technique and Th and catecholamines by HPLC with electrochemical detection. RESULTS: In the animals receiving Sry there were significant increases after 3 weeks in resting plasma NE (57%) and adrenal Th content (49%) compared to vector controls. BP was 30 mmHg higher in Sry injected animals (160 mmHg, p < .05) compared to vector controls (130 mmHg) after 2-3 weeks. Histological analysis showed that the electroporation procedure did not produce morphological damage. CONCLUSION: These results provide continued support that Sry is a candidate gene for hypertension. Also, these results are consistent with a role for Sry in increasing BP by directly or indirectly activating sympathetic nervous system activity.

PMID: 17324261 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Cytogenet Genome Res. 2007;116(3):232-4.Click here to read  Links

Mapping platypus SOX genes; autosomal location of SOX9 excludes it from sex determining role.

P     Wallis MC, Delbridge ML, Pask AJ, Alsop AE, Grutzner F, O'Brien PC, Rens W, Ferguson-Smith MA, Graves JA.

        Comparative Genomics Group, Research School of Biological Sciences, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.

In the absence of an SRY orthologue the platypus sex determining gene is unknown, so genes in the human testis determining pathway are of particular interest as candidates. SOX9 is an attractive choice because SOX9 deletions cause male-to-female sex reversal in humans and mice, and SOX9 duplications cause female-to-male sex reversal. We have localized platypus SOX9, as well as the related SOX10, to platypus chromosomes 15 and 10, respectively, the first assignments to these platypus chromosomes, and the first comparative mapping markers from human chromosomes 17 and 22. The autosomal localization of platypus SOX9 in this study contradicts the hypothesis that SOX9 acts as the sex determining switch in platypus. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

PMID: 17317965 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

N-terminal domain of the SRY protein. Herein, we describe a young girl with pure gonadal dysgenesis and her father carrying a novel familial mutation in the SRY gene at codon number 3. This mutation is resulting in a serine (S) to leucine (L) substitution. The secondary structure of the SRY protein was carried out by protein modelling studies. This analysis suggests, with high possibility, that the N-terminal domain of the SRY protein, where we found the mutation, could form an alpha-helix from amino acid in position 2 to amino acid in position 13. The secondary structure prediction and the chemical properties of serine to leucine substitution stands for a potential disruption of this N-terminal alpha-helix in the SRY protein. This mutation could have some role in impeding the normal function of the SRY protein.

PMID: 17063144 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cip1/Waf1/Kip1-2-family (p21(Cip1/Waf1), p27(Kip1), p57(Kip2)) are shown both in the context of proliferation regulators and as contributors to the apoptotic machinery. Bcl2-family members (i.e. Bcl2, Bcl-X(L) Mcl-1(L); Bax, Bok/Mtd, Bak, and Bcl-X(S); Bad, Bid, Bim(EL), Bmf, Mcl-1(S)) are highlighted both for their apoptosis-regulating capacity and also for their effect on the cell cycle progression. The PI3-K/Akt cell survival pathway is shown as regulator of cell metabolism and cell survival, but examples are also provided where aberrant activity of the pathway may contribute to the induction of apoptosis. Myc/Mad/Max proteins are shown both as a powerful S-phase driving complex and as apoptosis-sensitizers. We also discuss multifunctional proteins like p53 and Rb (RBL1/p107, RBL2/p130) both in the context of G(1)-S transition and as apoptotic triggers. Finally, we reflect on novel therapeutic approaches that would involve redirecting over-active survival and proliferation pathways towards induction of apoptosis in cancer cells.

PMID: 17303468 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher