Flowchart: Preparation: Rf3


Text Box: Aflp





Text Box: Rf3 




Text Box: TnaC-peptidy1-tRNA


Text Box: Gtp





J Bacteriol. 2007 Apr;189(8):3147-55. Epub 2007 Feb 9.Click here to read Links

Ribosome recycling factor and release factor 3 action promotes TnaC-peptidyl-tRNA Dropoff and relieves ribosome stalling during tryptophan induction of tna operon expression in Escherichia coli.

Gong M, Cruz-Vera LR, Yanofsky C.

Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.

Upon tryptophan induction of tna operon expression in Escherichia coli, the leader peptidyl-tRNA, TnaC-tRNA(2)(Pro), resists cleavage, resulting in ribosome stalling at the tnaC stop codon. This stalled ribosome blocks Rho factor binding and action, preventing transcription termination in the tna operon's leader region. Plasmid-mediated overexpression of tnaC was previously shown to inhibit cell growth by reducing uncharged tRNA(2)(Pro) availability. Which factors relieve ribosome stalling, facilitate TnaC-tRNA(2)(Pro) cleavage, and relieve growth inhibition were addressed in the current study. In strains containing the chromosomal tna operon and lacking a tnaC plasmid, the overproduction of ribosome recycling factor (RRF) and release factor 3 (RF3) reduced tna operon expression. Their overproduction in vivo also increased the rate of cleavage of TnaC-tRNA(2)(Pro), relieving the growth inhibition associated with plasmid-mediated tnaC overexpression. The overproduction of elongation factor G or initiation factor 3 did not have comparable effects, and tmRNA was incapable of attacking TnaC-tRNA(2)(Pro) in stalled ribosome complexes. The stability of TnaC-tRNA(2)(Pro) was increased appreciably in strains deficient in RRF and RF3 or deficient in peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase. These findings reveal the existence of a natural mechanism whereby an amino acid, tryptophan, binds to ribosomes that have just completed the synthesis of TnaC-tRNA(2)(Pro). Bound tryptophan inhibits RF2-mediated cleavage of TnaC-tRNA(2)(Pro), resulting in the stalling of the ribosome translating tnaC mRNA. This stalling results in increased transcription of the structural genes of the tna operon. RRF and RF3 then bind to this stalled ribosome complex and slowly release TnaC-tRNA(2)(Pro). This release allows ribosome recycling and permits the cleavage of TnaC-tRNA(2)(Pro) by peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase.

PMID: 17293419 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

J Biol Chem. 2006 Dec 29;281(52):40224-35. Epub 2006 Oct 24.Click here to read Links

Kinetic analysis of interaction of eukaryotic release factor 3 with guanine nucleotides.

Pisareva VP, Pisarev AV, Hellen CU, Rodnina MV, Pestova TV.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, State University of New York Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York 11203, USA.

Eukaryotic translation termination is mediated by two release factors: eRF1 recognizes stop codons and triggers peptidyl-tRNA hydrolysis, whereas eRF3 accelerates this process in a GTP-dependent manner. Here we report kinetic analysis of guanine nucleotide binding to eRF3 performed by fluorescence stopped-flow technique using GTP/GDP derivatives carrying the fluorescent methylanthraniloyl (mant-) group, as well as thermodynamic analysis of eRF3 binding to unlabeled guanine nucleotides. Whereas the kinetics of eRF3 binding to mant-GDP is consistent with a one-step binding model, the double-exponential transients of eRF3 binding to mant-GTP indicate a two-step binding mechanism, in which the initial eRF3.mant-GTP complex undergoes subsequent conformational change. The affinity of eRF3 for GTP (K(d), approximately 70 microM) is about 70-fold lower than for GDP (K(d), approximately 1 microM) and both nucleotides dissociate rapidly from eRF3 (k(-1)(mant-GDP) approximately 2.4 s(-1); k(-2)(mant-GTP) approximately 3.3 s(-1)). Whereas not influencing eRF3 binding to GDP, association of eRF3 with eRF1 at physiological Mg(2+) concentrations specifically changes the kinetics of eRF3/mant-GTP interaction and stabilizes eRF3.GTP binding by two orders of magnitude (K(d) approximately 0.7 microM) due to lowering of the dissociation rate constant approximately 24-fold (k(-1)(mant-GTP) approximately 0.14s(-1) approximately 0.14 s(-1)). Thus, eRF1 acts as a GTP dissociation inhibitor (TDI) for eRF3, promoting efficient ribosomal recruitment of its GTP-bound form. 80 S ribosomes did not influence guanine nucleotide binding/exchange on the eRF1 x eRF3 complex. Guanine nucleotide binding and exchange on eRF3, which therefore depends on stimulation by eRF1, is entirely different from that on prokaryotic RF3 and unusual among GTPases.

PMID: 17062564 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Mol Genet Genomics. 2006 Aug;276(2):162-9. Epub 2006 May 17.Click here to read Links

AFLP and PCR-based markers linked to Rf3, a fertility restorer gene for S cytoplasmic male sterility in maize.

Zhang ZF, Wang Y, Zheng YL.

National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, China.

The Rf3 gene restores the pollen fertility disturbed by S male sterile cytoplasm. In order to develop molecular markers tightly linked to Rf3, we used amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technique with near isogenic lines (NILs) and bulk segregant analysis (BSA). A BC(1)F(1) population from a pair of NILs with different Rf3 locus was constructed and 528 primer combinations was screened. A linkage map was constructed around the Rf3 locus, which was mapped on the distal region of chromosome 2 long arm with the help of SSR marker UMC2184. The closest marker E7P6 was 0.9 cM away from Rf3. Marker E3P1, 2.4 cM from Rf3, and E12M7, 1.8 cM from Rf3, were converted into a codominant CAPS and a dominant SCAR marker, and designated as CAPSE3P1 and SCARE12M7, respectively. These markers are useful for marker-assisted selection and map-based cloning of the Rf3 gene.

PMID: 16705419 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]