Hum Mutat. 2006 Jul;27(7):686-95. Arch Neurol. 2006 Mar;63(3):370-6.
Mean age-of-onset of familial alzheimer disease caused by presenilin mutations correlates with both increased Abeta42 and decreased Abeta40.
Kumar-Singh S, Theuns J, Van Broeck B, Pirici D, Vennekens K, Corsmit E, Cruts M, Dermaut B, Wang R, Van Broeckhoven C.
Neurodegenerative Brain Diseases Group, Department of Molecular Genetics, Flanders Interuniversity Institute of Biotechnology, University of Antwerp, Antwerpen, Belgium. firstname.lastname@example.org
The varied ways in which mutations in presenilins (PSEN1 and PSEN2) affect amyloid b precursor protein (APP) processing in causing early-onset familial Alzheimer disease (FAD) are complex and not yet properly understood. Nonetheless, one useful diagnostic marker is an increased ratio of Ab42 to Ab40 (Ab42/Ab40) in patients' brain and biological fluids as well as in transgenic mice and cells. We studied Ab and APP processing for a set of nine clinical PSEN mutations on a novel and highly reproducible enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based in vitro method and also sought correlation with brain Ab analyzed by image densitometry and mass spectrometry. All mutations significantly increased Ab42/Ab40 in vitro by significantly decreasing Ab40 with accumulation of APP C-terminal fragments, a sign of decreased PSEN activity. A significant increase in absolute levels of Ab42 was observed for only half of the mutations tested. We also showed that age-of-onset of PSEN1-linked FAD correlated inversely with Ab42/Ab40 (r = -0.89; P = 0.001) and absolute levels of Ab42 (r = -0.83; P = 0.006), but directly with Ab40 levels (r = 0.69; P = 0.035). These changes also partly correlated with brain Ab42 and Ab40 levels. Together, our data suggested that Ab40 might be protective by perhaps sequestering the more toxic Ab42 and facilitating its clearance. Also, the in vitro method we describe here is a valid tool for assaying the pathogenic potential of clinical PSEN mutations in a molecular diagnostic setting.
PMID: 16752394 [PubMed - in process]
Lewy body pathology in familial Alzheimer disease: evidence for disease- and mutation-specific pathologic phenotype.
Leverenz JB, Fishel MA, Peskind ER, Montine TJ, Nochlin D, Steinbart E, Raskind MA, Schellenberg GD, Bird TD, Tsuang D.
Parkinson's Disease, Mental Illness Research, Education, and Clinical Centers, Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, Wash, USA. email@example.com
BACKGROUND: The origin and significance of Lewy bodies and neurites (Lewy body pathology [LBP]) in Alzheimer disease (AD) are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To examine LBP in the brainstem, limbic cortex, and neocortex of a large number of familial AD cases with mutations in 2 presenilin (PSEN) genes. METHODS: Twenty-five familial AD cases with 9 known PSEN 1 mutations and 14 familial AD cases with a single PSEN 2 mutation (N141I) were examined for LBP using alpha-synuclein immunohistochemistry and sampling of multiple brainstem and cortical regions. RESULTS: The amygdala was the most vulnerable site for LBP. In fact, virtually all (24 [96%] of 25 cases) of the PSEN 1 mutation cases had LBP in the amygdala. The PSEN 1 mutation cases also had more frequent LBP in the amygdala and neocortex than those with the PSEN 2 mutation. However, within families with a single mutation of either PSEN 1 or PSEN 2, there was frequent variability of the LBP. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that there are genetic influences on the presence of LBP in familial AD as demonstrated by the differences between PSEN 1 and PSEN 2 mutation cases.
PMID: 16533963 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Hum Mutat. 2006 Jul;27(7):686-95.
Arch Neurol. 2006 Mar;63(3):370-6.