Disruption of intermolecular
disulfide bonds in PDGF-BB dimers by N-acetyl-l-cysteine does not prevent PDGF signaling in cultured
hepatic stellate cells.
Borkham-Kamphorst E, Meurer SK, Gressner AM, Weiskirchen R.
Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Pathobiochemistry,
Oxidative stress is important in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis through its induction of hepatic stellate cell (HSC) proliferation and enhancement of collagen synthesis. Reactive oxygen species have been found to be essential second messengers in the signaling of both major fibrotic growth factors, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), in cultured HSC and liver fibrosis. The non-toxic aminothiol N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) inhibits cellular activation and attenuates experimental fibrosis in liver. Prior reports show that NAC is capable of reducing the effects of TGF-beta in biological systems, in cultured endothelial cells, and HSC through its direct reducing activity upon TGF-beta molecules. We here analyzed the effects of NAC on PDGF integrity, receptor binding, and downstream signaling in culture-activated HSC. We found that NAC dose-dependently induces disintegration of PDGF in vitro. However, even high doses (>20mM) were not sufficient to prevent the phosphorylation of the PDGF receptor type beta, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, or protein kinase B (PKB/Akt). Therefore, we conclude that the PDGF monomer is still active. The described antifibrotic effects are therefore mainly attributable to the structural impairment of TGF-beta signaling components reported previously.
PMID: 16289037 [PubMed - in process]
demonstrates an excellent pharmacokinetic profile in several species and was found to be efficacious in the prevention of restenosis in a
Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-B and its receptor (PDGF-R) beta are overexpressed in human gliomas and responsible for recruiting peri-endothelial cells to vessels. To establish the role of PDGF-B in glioma angiogenesis, we overexpressed PDGF-B in U87MG glioma cells. Although PDGF-B stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of PDGF-Rbeta in U87MG cells, treatment with recombinant PDGF-B or overexpression of PDGF-B in U87MG cells had no effect on their proliferation. However, an increase of secreted PDGF-B in conditioned media of U87MG/PDGF-B cells promoted migration of endothelial cells expressing PDGF-R beta, whereas conditioned media from U87MG cells did not increase the cell migration. In mice, overexpression of PDGF-B in U87MG cells enhanced intracranial glioma formation by stimulating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in neovessels and by attracting vessel-associated pericytes. When PDGF-B and VEGF were overexpressed simultaneously by U87MG tumors, there was a marked increase of capillary-associated pericytes as seen in U87MG/VEGF(165)/PDGF-B gliomas. As a result of pericyte recruitment, vessels induced by VEGF in tumor vicinity migrated into the central regions of these tumors. These data suggest that PDGF-B is a paracrine factor in U87MG gliomas, and that PDGF-B enhances glioma angiogenesis, at least in part, by stimulating VEGF expression in tumor endothelia and by recruiting pericytes to neovessels.