Flowchart: Preparation: P13k


Text Box: Mapk

Text Box: Ras

Text Box: Pip2





Text Box: P13kText Box: Tollip


Human Papillomavirus                                                  


Text Box: PIP3


Text Box: AKT


Text Box: IGF

Text Box: cMYC

Text Box: F-actin








Virology. 2006 Jun 14; [Epub ahead of print]

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Papillomavirus virus-like particles activate the PI3-kinase pathway via alpha-6 beta-4 integrin upon binding.

Fothergill T, McMillan NA.

Cancer Biology Program, Centre for Immunology and Cancer Research, Princess Alexandra Hospital, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

We have previously shown that human papillomavirus virus-like particles (VLPs) are able to activate the Ras/MAP kinase pathway. Ras can also elicit an anti-apoptotic signal via PI3-kinase so we investigated this further. Here we show that binding of VLPs from HPV types 6b, 18, 31, 35 and BPV1 results in activation of PI3-kinase. Activation was achieved by either L1 or L1/L2 VLPs and was dependent on both VLP-cell interaction and correct conformation of the virus particle. VLP-induced PI3-kinase activity resulted in efficient downstream signaling to Akt and consequent phosphorylation of FKHR and GSK3beta. We also present evidence that PV signaling is activated via the alpha6beta4 integrin. These data suggest that papillomaviruses use a common receptor that is able to signal through to Ras. Combined activation of the Ras/MAP kinase and PI3-kinase pathways may be beneficial for the virus by increasing cell numbers and producing an environment more conducive to infection.

PMID: 16781758 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


Novartis Found Symp. 2005;269:73-87; discussion 87-91, 223-30.

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Finding the way: directional sensing and cell polarization through Ras signalling.

Sasaki AT, Firtel RA.

Section of Cell and Developmental Biology, Division of Biological Sciences and Center for Molecular Genetics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla 92093, USA.

Chemotactic eukaryotic cells have the unique ability to sense a shallow extracellular chemoattractant gradient and translate it into a steep intracellular gradient. For example, phosphoinositide-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3), the product of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), is accumulated at the leading edge but not the back of a polarized chemotaxing cell. This is partially controlled by the reciprocal, preferential localization of PI3K and PTEN to the membrane at the front and back, respectively. However, upstream events that control the localized activation and localization of PI3K and PTEN remain unclear. Recent findings indicate that Ras is important for activation of the PI3K pathway and regulation of directed cell movement and cell polarity. Ras is activated at the leading edge, and this local activation occurs without asymmetric localization of PI3K and PTEN or the F-actin cytoskeleton. In contrast, P13K localization is driven by F-actin polymerization. Thus, Ras functions as an essential part of the cell's compass acting upstream of PI3K while reciprocal localization of PI3K and PTEN amplify the PIP3 gradient, rather than create it. These observations suggest a positive feedback loop to amplify an initial PIP3 gradient in which localized F-actin polymerization recruits cytosolic PI3K to the leading edge, where it is activated by Ras to locally produce PIP3 that induces F-actin polymerization.

PMID: 16355536 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]