Flowchart: Preparation: KLK8


Text Box: KLK8       




Breast cancer                             

Text Box: PlasminogenText Box: ECMCentral Nervous System          

Ovarian cancer

Skin cancer                      


Biol Chem. 2006 Dec;387(12):1607-12.Click here to read  Links

The role of human tissue kallikreins 7 and 8 in intracranial malignancies.

P     Prezas P, Scorilas A, Yfanti C, Viktorov P, Agnanti N, Diamandis E, Talieri M.

G. Papanicolaou Research Center of Oncology, Saint Savas Hospital, 171 Alexandras Avenue, GR-11522 Athens, Greece.

Recent evidence suggests that many tissue kallikreins are implicated in carcinogenesis. Kallikrein 8 (KLK8) plays a role in the physiology of the central nervous system. Kallikrein 7 (KLK7) takes part in skin desquamation. Both show altered expression in ovarian and breast cancer. In this study, we examined the level of mRNA expression of the KLK7 and KLK8 genes in 73 intracranial tumors using qualitative RT-PCR. The results were correlated with clinical and histomorphological variables and patient outcome. The expression of both genes was also examined in the brain cancer cell lines U-251 MG, D54 and SH-SY5Y and the invasive capacity of glioblastoma cells U-251 MG overexpressing hK7 or hK8 was also investigated in an in vitro Matrigel assay. Follow-up analysis revealed that expression of KLK7 mRNA was associated with shorter overall survival (OS) compared to patients with no KLK7 expression, as determined by Cox proportional hazard regression analysis. Overexpression of hK7 protein by cultivated brain tumor cells significantly enhanced the invasive potential in the Matrigel invasion assay, in contrast to cells overexpressing hK8 protein. Our data suggest that hK7 protein overexpression is associated with a more aggressive phenotype in brain cancer cells.

FEBS Lett. 2005 Dec 19;579(30):6879-84. Epub 2005 Dec 1.Click here to read  Links

Biochemical characterization of human kallikrein 8 and its possible involvement in the degradation of extracellular matrix proteins.

P     Rajapakse S, Ogiwara K, Takano N, Moriyama A, Takahashi T.

Division of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810, Japan.

Human kallikrein 8 (KLK8) is a member of the human kallikrein gene family of serine proteases, and its protein, hK8, has recently been suggested to serve as a new ovarian cancer marker. To gain insights into the physiological role of hK8, the active recombinant enzyme was obtained in a pure state for biochemical and enzymatic characterizations. hK8 had trypsin-like activity with a strong preference for Arg over Lys in the P1 position, and its activity was inhibited by typical serine protease inhibitors. The protease degraded casein, fibronectin, gelatin, collagen type IV, fibrinogen, and high-molecular-weight kininogen. hK8 also converted human single-chain tissue-type plasminogen activator (65 kDa) to its two-chain form (32 and 33 kDa) by specifically cleaving the peptide bond Arg275-Ile276. This conversion resulted in a drastic increase in the activity of the activator toward the fluorogenic substrate Pyr-Gly-Arg-MCA and plasminogen in the absence of fibrin. Our findings suggest that hK8 may be implicated in ECM protein degradation in the area surrounding hK8-producing cells.

PMID: 16337200 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

PMID: 17132107 [PubMed - in process]


Clin Cancer Res. 2006 Mar 1;12(5):1487-93.Click here to read  Links

Human kallikrein 8 protein is a favorable prognostic marker in ovarian cancer.

P     Borgono CA, Kishi T, Scorilas A, Harbeck N, Dorn J, Schmalfeldt B, Schmitt M, Diamandis EP.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Human kallikrein 8 (hK8/neuropsin/ovasin; encoded by KLK8) is a steroid hormone-regulated secreted serine protease differentially expressed in ovarian carcinoma. KLK8 mRNA levels are associated with a favorable patient prognosis and hK8 protein levels are elevated in the sera of 62% ovarian cancer patients, suggesting that KLK8/hK8 is a prospective biomarker. Given the above, the aim of the present study was to determine if tissue hK8 bears any prognostic significance in ovarian cancer. Using a newly developed ELISA, hK8 was quantified in 136 ovarian tumor extracts and correlated with clinicopathologic variables and outcome [progression-free survival (PFS); overall survival (OS)] over a median follow-up period of 42 months. hK8 levels in ovarian tumor cytosols ranged from 0 to 478 ng/mg total protein, with a median of 30 ng/mg. An optimal cutoff value of 25.8 ng/mg total protein (74th percentile) was selected based on the ability of hK8 values to predict the PFS of the study population and to categorize tumors as hK8 positive or negative. Women with hK8-positive tumors most often had lower-grade tumors (G1), no residual tumor after surgery, and optimal debulking success (P < 0.05). Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that patients with hK8-positive tumors had a significantly longer PFS and OS than hK8-negative patients (P < 0.05). Kaplan-Meier survival curves further confirmed a reduced risk of relapse and death in women with hK8-positive tumors (P = 0.001 and P = 0.014, respectively). These results indicate that hK8 is an independent marker of favorable prognosis in ovarian cancer.

PMID: 16533772 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Oncol Rep. 2004 Jun;11(6):1153-9. Links

Human kallikrein 8 (hK8/TADG-14) expression is associated with an early clinical stage and favorable prognosis in ovarian cancer.

P     Shigemasa K, Tian X, Gu L, Tanimoto H, Underwood LJ, O'Brien TJ, Ohama K.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hiroshima University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8551, Japan. kazu@hiroshima-u.ac.jp

The purpose of this study was to examine human kallikrein 8 (hK8/TADG-14) expression in epithelial ovarian tumors and to investigate the association of hK8 expression levels with patient survival. Human kallikrein 8 protein (hK8) expression was examined by immunohistochemistry in 74 ovarian adenocarcinomas and 6 normal ovaries. Results of immunostaining were correlated with clinicopathological variables and overall survival of the patients. Human kallikrein 8 gene (KLK8) mRNA expression was examined by semi-quantitative PCR in 35 ovarian tumors and 7 normal ovaries. Expression of hK8 was not detected on the surface epithelium of normal ovaries. In contrast, hK8 expression was detected in 51.4% (38/74) of carcinomas with a significantly higher detection rate of hK8 expression being observed in early stage disease compared to advanced stage disease (p=0.0192). Data analysis using the log-rank test showed hK8 expression correlated significantly with favorable patient survival (p=0.0328). Younger age (p=0.0008), early clinical stage (p<0.0001), and low histological grades of the tumors (p=0.0018) were also associated significantly with a favorable prognosis. In a multivariate model, age (p=0.0186) and clinical stage (p<0.0001) remained associated significantly with overall survival, whereas hK8 expression and histological grade lost their significance. There was significant relationship between the hK8 expression status and KLK8 mRNA expression levels (p=0.0304). Expression of hK8 is increased during the development of ovarian cancer and down-regulated during ovarian cancer progression. Expression of hK8 is a favorable prognostic marker in patients with ovarian cancer.

PMID: 15138549 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Br J Dermatol. 2005 Aug;153(2):274-81.Click here to read  Links

Multiple tissue kallikrein mRNA and protein expression in normal skin and skin diseases.

P     Komatsu N, Saijoh K, Toyama T, Ohka R, Otsuki N, Hussack G, Takehara K, Diamandis EP.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Mount Sinai Hospital, 600 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5G 1X5.

BACKGROUND: Human tissue kallikreins are a gene family (KLK1-KLK15) encoding for 15 secretory serine proteases (hK1-hK15). Two tissue kallikrein proteins, hK5 and hK7, were previously found in the stratum corneum (SC), stratum granulosum (SG) and appendages. hK8 was also shown to be secreted via lamellar granules and numerous KLK mRNAs were previously identified. KLKs are believed to be responsible for desquamation of corneocytes and sebum, sweat and hair maturation. OBJECTIVES: To demonstrate immunohistochemically the expression of hK6, hK8 and hK13 in normal skin tissue and to show an increased cell number expressing kallikrein mRNAs and proteins in psoriasis vulgaris (PV) and atopic dermatitis (AD). METHODS: Samples of normal, PV and AD skin were obtained. hK6-, hK8- and hK13-specific antibodies were produced and used for immunohistochemical analysis. Multiple KLK mRNAs were synthesized and used for in situ hybridization study. RESULTS: Three other hKs, namely hK6, hK8 and hK13, were immunohistochemically identified as new skin serine proteases in the whole SC, SG, sebaceous glands, eccrine sweat glands, hair follicles and nerves. We also demonstrated an increased number of cells expressing KLK mRNAs and hKs in PV and AD. In PV, KLK mRNAs/hKs were predominantly expressed in the upper epidermis. In AD, hK distribution was rather diffuse and expanded into the lower epidermis. CONCLUSIONS: The colocalization of various hKs seems to be essential for the regulation of serine protease activity in skin and for steady desquamation and skin barrier function. Moreover, the increased number of cells expressing multiple KLK mRNA and hK in PV and AD could be a clue to elucidate their pathogenesis.

PMID: 16086736 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]






Genomics. 2006 Nov;88(5):591-9. Epub 2006 Jul 7.Click here to read  Links

In silico identification and Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of multiple new mammalian kallikrein gene families.

P     Elliott MB,

P     Irwin DM,

P     Diamandis EP.

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada M5G 1L5.

Kallikrein gene families have been identified previously in genomes of the human, the mouse, and the rat, and individual kallikrein-like genes have been found in many more species. This study presents the in silico identification of kallikrein gene families in the recently sequenced genomes of four additional mammalian species, the chimpanzee, the dog, the pig, and the opossum. Phylogenies were constructed with gene sequences from all seven mammalian families, using Bayesian analysis, which clarified the evolutionary relationships between these genes. Individual gene sequences, as well as concatenated constructs of multiple sequences, were used. Fifteen kallikrein genes were located in the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) genome, while only 14 were identified in the canine (Canis familiaris) genome as no orthologue to human KLK3 was found. Thirteen genes were identified from the pig (Sus scrofa) genome, which lacked homologues to KLK2 and KLK3, and 11 genes, orthologous to human KLK5 through KLK15, were found in the opossum (Monodelphis domestica) genome. No kallikrein genes were identified from the available genome sequences of the chicken (Gallus gallus) or African clawed frog (Xenopus tropicalis). Within the family of kallikreins several subfamilies were suggested by phylogenetic analysis. One consisted of KLK4, KLK5, and KLK14; another of KLK9, KLK11, and KLK15; a third of KLK10 and KLK12; a fourth of KLK6 and KLK13; and finally one of KLK8 and the classical kallikreins (KLK1, KLK2, and KLK3).

PMID: 16829021 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]