Increased radiation-induced apoptosis of Saos2 cells via inhibition of NFkappaB: A role for c-Jun N-terminal kinase.
Eliseev RA, Zuscik MJ, Schwarz EM, O'keefe RJ, Drissi H, Rosier RN.
Center for Musculoskeletal Research,
To elucidate the possible effect of NFkappaB on radioresistance, we used the osteosarcoma cell line Saos2, stably expressing the NFkappaB constitutive inhibitor, mIkappaB (Saos2-mIkappaB) or stably transfected with the empty vector (Saos2-EV). Ionizing radiation induced "intrinsic" apoptosis in Saos2-mIkappaB cells but not in Saos2-EV control cells, with intact NFkappaB activity. We find as expected, that this NFkappaB activity was enhanced following irradiation in the Saos2-EV control cells. On the other hand, inhibition of NFkappaB signaling in Saos2-mIkappaB cells led to the upregulation of the pro-apoptotic systems, such as Bax protein and c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK)/c-Jun/AP1 signaling. Inhibition of NFkappaB resulted in decreased expression of the DNA damage protein GADD45beta, a known inhibitor of JNK. Subsequently, JNK activation of c-Jun/AP-1 proteins increased radiation-induced apoptosis in these mutants. Radiation-induced apoptosis in Saos2-mIkappaB cells was inhibited by the JNK specific inhibitor SP600125 as well as by Bcl-2 over-expression. Furthermore, release of cytochrome-c from mitochondria was increased and caspase-9 and -3 were activated following irradiation in Saos2-mIkappaB cells. Antisense inhibition of GADD45beta in Saos2-EV cells significantly enhanced apoptosis following irradiation. Our results demonstrate that radioresistance of Saos2 osteosarcoma cells is due to NFkappaB-mediated inhibition of JNK. Our study brings new insight into the mechanisms underlying radiation-induced apoptosis of osteosarcoma, and may lead to development of new therapeutic strategies against osteosarcoma. J. Cell. Biochem. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
PMID: 16167336 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Mutually Exclusive Subsets of BH3-Only Proteins Are Activated
by the p53 and c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase/c-Jun
Signaling Pathways during Cortical Neuron Apoptosis Induced by Arsenite.
Wong HK, Fricker M, Wyttenbach A, Villunger A, Michalak EM, Strasser A, Tolkovsky AM.
Department of Biochemistry,
The c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK)/c-Jun and p53 pathways form distinct death-signaling modules in neurons that culminate in Bax-dependent apoptosis. To investigate whether this signaling autonomy is due to recruitment of particular BH3-only proteins, we searched for a toxic signal that would activate both pathways in the same set of neurons. We show that arsenite activates both the JNK/c-Jun and p53 pathways in cortical neurons, which together account for >95% of apoptosis, as determined by using the mixed-lineage kinase (JNK/c-Jun) pathway inhibitor CEP11004 and p53-null mice. Despite the coexistence of both pathways in at least 30% of the population, Bim mRNA and protein expression was increased only by the JNK/c-Jun signaling pathway, whereas Noxa and Puma mRNA and Puma protein expression was entirely JNK/c-Jun independent. About 50% of Puma/Noxa expression was p53 dependent, with the remaining signal being independent of both pathways and possibly facilitated by arsenite-induced reduction in P-Akt. However, functionally, Puma was predominant in mediating Bax-dependent apoptosis, as evidenced by the fact that more than 90% of apoptosis was prevented in Puma-null neurons, although Bim was still upregulated, while Bim- and Noxa-null neurons died similarly to wild-type neurons. Thus, the p53 and JNK/c-Jun pathways can activate mutually exclusive subclasses of BH3-only proteins in the same set of neurons. However, other factors besides expression may determine which BH3-only proteins mediate apoptosis.
To assess the specific role of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) death receptor signaling in the induction of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death, optic nerves of mice deficient for TNF receptor-1 (TNF-R1-/-) and control mice (C57BL/6J) were unilaterally subjected to crush injury. Counts of RGCs and their axons 6 weeks after the injury demonstrated that their loss was significantly less in TNF-R1-/- mice compared to controls. The most prominent decrease in neuronal loss detected in TNF-R1-/- mice was beyond the initial 2-week period after the injury. This time period was correlated with the period of glial activation and increased glial immunolabeling for TNF-alpha in these eyes. No further protection against neuronal loss was detectable in TNF-R1-/- mice treated with D-JNKI1, a specific inhibitor of c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK). However, anti-JNK treatment of control animals provided a significant protection against neuronal loss during the same secondary degeneration period. Phospho-JNK immunolabeling of RGCs in control mice subjected to optic nerve crush significantly decreased following their treatment with D-JNKI1, and anti-JNK treatment protected RGCs from degeneration in these animals, similar to the lack of TNF-R1. These findings provide evidence that TNF death receptor signaling is involved in the secondary degeneration of RGCs following optic nerve injury, and is associated with JNK signaling. Since secondarily degenerating neurons are viable targets for neuroprotection, inhibition of TNF death receptor signaling may be an effective strategy to protect RGCs in several neurodegenerative injuries.