Flowchart: Preparation: Il16




Text Box: Ccr5Text Box: IL16                                     

Text Box: Cd4                                     




Text Box: Cxcr3 






J Immunol. 2006 Feb 15;176(4):2337-45.

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Chemokine receptor CXCR3 desensitization by IL-16/CD4 signaling is dependent on CCR5 and intact membrane cholesterol.

Rahangdale S, Morgan R, Heijens C, Ryan TC, Yamasaki H, Bentley E, Sullivan E, Center DM, Cruikshank WW.

Pulmonary Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118, USA.

Previous work has shown that IL-16/CD4 induces desensitization of both CCR5- and CXCR4-induced migration, with no apparent effect on CCR2b or CCR3. To investigate the functional relationship between CD4 and other chemokine receptors, we determined the effects of IL-16 interaction with CD4 on CXCR3-induced migration. In this study we demonstrate that IL-16/CD4 induced receptor desensitization of CXCR3 on primary human T cells. IL-16/CD4 stimulation does not result in surface modulation of CXCR3 or changes in CXCL10 binding affinity. This effect does require p56(lck) enzymatic activity and the presence of CCR5, because desensitization is not transmitted in the absence of CCR5. Treatment of human T cells with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin, a cholesterol chelator, prevented the desensitization of CXCR3 via IL-16/CD4, which was restored after reloading of cholesterol, indicating a requirement for intact cholesterol. These studies demonstrate an intimate functional relationship among CD4, CCR5, and CXCR3, in which CCR5 can act as an adaptor molecule for CD4 signaling. This process of regulating Th1 cell chemoattraction may represent a mechanism for orchestrating cell recruitment in Th1-mediated diseases.

Immunology. 2006 Jan;117(1):89-96.

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Interleukin-16 inhibits interleukin-13 production by allergen-stimulated blood mononuclear cells.

El Bassam S, Pinsonneault S, Kornfeld H, Ren F, Menezes J, Laberge S.

Laboratory of Immunology, Research Center, Ste-Justine Hospital, University of Montreal, Canada.

Expression of interleukin (IL)-16 is increased in bronchial mucosal biopsies of atopic asthmatics compared to normal controls. The functional significance of increased expression of IL-16 at sites of allergic inflammation is not yet clear. We have previously shown that IL-16 inhibits IL-5 secretion by allergen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). We investigated whether IL-16 inhibits the production of other T helper 2 cytokines, namely IL-13 and IL-4, by allergen-specific T cells. PBMC from ragweed-sensitive atopic subjects were stimulated with allergen extract for cytokine production in the presence or absence of rhIL-16. Production of cytokines was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. To evaluate whether the modulatory effect of IL-16 on cytokine synthesis was mediated by interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), IL-10, IL-12 or IL-18, allergen-stimulated PBMC were cultured in presence of IL-16 and neutralizing concentrations of relevant antibodies. Allergen-stimulated PBMC produced significantly elevated levels of IL-13 (90-740 pg/ml) as compared to unstimulated PBMC (0-375 pg/ml, P < 0.01). Addition of rhIL-16 resulted in down-regulation of IL-13 mRNA expression as well as significantly reduced amounts of IL-13 released by allergen-stimulated PBMC (0-457 pg/ml, P < 0.001), as observed for IL-5. No effect of IL-16 was observed on IL-4 mRNA expression. Treatment with IL-16 resulted in increased levels of IL-10 and IL-18 in allergen-stimulated cell culture. Neutralization of IFN-gamma, IL-12, IL-10 or IL-18 did not alter the inhibitory effects of IL-16 on IL-13 and IL-5 secretion by allergen-stimulated PBMC. IL-16 did not modify IL-13 synthesis by anti-CD3-stimulated CD4(+) T cells, but it significantly reduced the production of IL-5. These data suggest that IL-16 may play an important immunoregulatory role in allergic states in response to allergen.

PMID: 16423044 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Liver Transpl. 2006 Feb;12(2):247-52.

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Allograft TNFbeta and IL16 polymorphisms influence HCV recurrence and severity after liver transplantation.

Kimball P, Baker M, Fisher RA.

Department of Surgery, Medical College of Virginia Hospitals at Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298, USA. pkimball@gems.vcu.edu

Hepatitis C (HCV) recurrence after liver transplantation is universal although severity varies. We explored whether certain donor cytokine gene polymorphisms may be useful markers of susceptibility to severe recurrence. Allograft tumor necrosis factor (TNF) beta and interleukin (IL) 16 gene polymorphisms were correlated with l-yr clinical outcome among HCV+ recipients. Recipients of donor TNFbeta(2,2) (n = 8) experienced less recurrence (50% vs. 71%, P < 0.05), less fibrosis (25% vs. 76%, P < 0.01), and less rejection (25% vs. 71%, P < 0.01) than donor TNFbeta(1,1) (n = 19). Recipients of donor TNFbeta(1,2) (n = 27) demonstrated an intermediate picture with less fibrosis (56%, P < 0.01) and less rejection (37%, P < 0.01) than TNFbeta(1,1). Recipients with donor IL16(TC) (n = 22) showed less recurrence (65% vs. 78%, P = 0.05), less fibrosis (53% vs. 67%, P = 0.06), and less rejection (41% vs. 55%, P = 0.06) than IL16(TT) (n = 32) genotype. Recipients of the combination TNFbeta(2,2)/IL16(TC) donor genotype had the most benign clinical outcome with less recurrence (33% vs. 75%, P < 0.01), no fibrosis (0% vs. 50%, P < 0.001), and fewer rejections (33% vs. 75%, P < 0.01) than donor TNFbeta(1,1)/IL16(TT) genotype. In vitro production of cytokines correlated with genotype. Release of soluble TNFbeta for TNFbeta(1,1) vs. TNFbeta(1,2) and TNFbeta(2,2) was 4803 +/- 2142 pg/mL vs. 5629 +/- 3106 (P = not significant [ns]) and 7180 +/- 3005 (P = ns). Release of soluble IL16 for IL16(TT) vs. IL16(TC) was 437 +/- 86 pg/mL vs. 554 +/- 39 (P = 0.06). In conclusion, allograft TNFbeta and IL16 gene polymorphisms may be useful markers to predict the severity of disease recurrence among HCV+ patients after liver transplantation. Copyright 2006 AASLD

PMID: 16447204 [PubMed - in process]