depletion by filtration may prevent the transmission of HTLV-I, which requires
cell-to-cell contact. The removal of HTLV-I-infected cells in routinely
filtered blood cell components was measured. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The
study was conducted in
PMID: 14692966 [PubMed - in process
Protein kinase casein kinase 1 (CK1) phosphorylates Ser-45 of beta-catenin, "priming" the subsequent phosphorylation by glycogen synthase-3 of residues 41, 37, and 33. This concerted phosphorylation of beta-catenin signals its degradation and prevents its function in triggering cell division. The sequence around Ser-45 does not conform to the canonical consensus for CK1 substrates, which prescribes either phosphoamino acids or acidic residues in position n-3 from the target serine. However, the beta-catenin sequence downstream from Ser-45 is very similar to a sequence recognized by CK1 in nuclear factor for activated T cells 4. The common features include an SLS motif followed two to five residues downstream by a cluster of acidic residues. Synthetic peptides reproducing residues 38-65 of beta-catenin were assayed with purified rat liver CK1 or recombinant CK1 alpha and CK1 alpha L from zebrafish. The results demonstrate that SLS and acidic cluster motifs are crucial for CK1 recognition. Pro-44 and Pro-52 are also important for efficient phosphorylation. Similar results were obtained with the different isoforms of CK1. Phosphorylation of mutants of full-length recombinant beta-catenin from zebrafish confirmed the importance of the SLS and acidic cluster motifs. A search for proteins with similar motifs yielded, among other proteins, adenomatous polyposis coli, previously found to be phosphorylated by CK1. There is a strong correlation of beta-catenin mutations found in thyroid tumors with the motifs recognized by CK1 in this protein.