HTLV-1

               

                 HTLV-1     

 


 

CK1

 

EFEF

EF

 

 
 

            Tipi

 BACKGROUND: WBC depletion by filtration may prevent the transmission of HTLV-I, which requires cell-to-cell contact. The removal of HTLV-I-infected cells in routinely filtered blood cell components was measured. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The study was conducted in Martinique where systematic screening for HTLV-I and -II and universal leukoreduction are mandatory. HTLV-I was quantified by use of real-time PCR in 8 RBC units and 4 PLT concentrates before and after filtration. HTLV-I proviral load in PBMNCs was determined in five of the eight HTLV-I-infected blood donors. RESULTS: The amount of MNC-associated HTLV-I DNA in RBC units before filtration was 21 x 106+/- 29 x 106 copies (mean +/- SD). HTLV-I was detected in 4 of 8 RBC units after filtration, with a number of copies in the MNC fraction ranging from 20 to 140, following a 4.9 to 5.8 log reduction. Flow cytometry analysis performed in 2 of the filtered RBC units containing detectable HTLV-I showed suboptimal and out-of-range leukoreduction (0.56 x 106 and 1.22 x 106 residual WBCs). HTLV was not detected in filtered RBCs from the blood donor with the highest percentage of HTLV-I-infected PBMCs (9%). CONCLUSION: This study confirms that HTLV-I-infected cells can be detected in filtered blood cell components and shows that optimal leukoreduction is critical for HTLV-I removal.

PMID: 14692966 [PubMed - in process
              

 

 

 

 

Protein kinase casein kinase 1 (CK1) phosphorylates Ser-45 of beta-catenin, "priming" the subsequent phosphorylation by glycogen synthase-3 of residues 41, 37, and 33. This concerted phosphorylation of beta-catenin signals its degradation and prevents its function in triggering cell division. The sequence around Ser-45 does not conform to the canonical consensus for CK1 substrates, which prescribes either phosphoamino acids or acidic residues in position n-3 from the target serine. However, the beta-catenin sequence downstream from Ser-45 is very similar to a sequence recognized by CK1 in nuclear factor for activated T cells 4. The common features include an SLS motif followed two to five residues downstream by a cluster of acidic residues. Synthetic peptides reproducing residues 38-65 of beta-catenin were assayed with purified rat liver CK1 or recombinant CK1 alpha and CK1 alpha L from zebrafish. The results demonstrate that SLS and acidic cluster motifs are crucial for CK1 recognition. Pro-44 and Pro-52 are also important for efficient phosphorylation. Similar results were obtained with the different isoforms of CK1. Phosphorylation of mutants of full-length recombinant beta-catenin from zebrafish confirmed the importance of the SLS and acidic cluster motifs. A search for proteins with similar motifs yielded, among other proteins, adenomatous polyposis coli, previously found to be phosphorylated by CK1. There is a strong correlation of beta-catenin mutations found in thyroid tumors with the motifs recognized by CK1 in this protein.