Flowchart: Preparation: Hgh


Text Box: P53




Breast Cancer                                                                                     

Text Box: Hgh 




Text Box: Jak2                                                  


Text Box: GhrText Box:  Bcl2Text Box: Her2                                                          





. Int J Oncol. 2008 Mar;32(3):593-601.Click here to read Links

Cellular mechanisms of growth inhibition of human endometrial cancer cell line by an antagonist of growth hormone-releasing hormone.

Zhao L, Yano T, Osuga Y, Nakagawa S, Oishi H, Wada-Hiraike O, Tang X, Yano N, Kugu K, Schally AV, Taketani Y.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8655, Japan.

The expression of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and its receptors has been demonstrated in peripheral tissues as well as CNS. Recently, the functional splice variant SV1 of GHRH receptor was identified in various human cancers and cancer cell lines. Although antineoplastic activity of GHRH antagonists has been clearly demonstrated, the mechanism of action is incompletely understood. The objective of this study was the investigation of direct anti-proliferative effect of GHRH antagonist MZ-5-156 on HEC-1A human endometrial cancer cell line and the elucidation of underlying mechanisms. RT-PCR revealed the expression of mRNA for GHRH and SV1 of GHRH receptor in HEC-1A cells. MZ-5-156, at concentrations between 10(-7) and 10(-5) M, had a dose-dependent antiproliferative effect on HEC-1A cells, as determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, (MTS) assay. Hoechst 33342 staining and flow cytometric analysis indicated that MZ-5-156, at 10(-6) M, induced apoptosis in HEC-1A cells after 48 h of treatment. Western blot analysis of apoptosis-related proteins demonstrated that treatment with MZ-5-156 (10(-6) M) for 48 h significantly increased the protein levels of Fas, phospho-p53 (Ser46), p53AIP1 (p53-regulated Apoptosis-Inducing Protein 1), and caspase-8, -9, and -3, and decreased the protein level of Bcl-2. These results demonstrate that MZ-5-156 can directly inhibit the proliferation of human endometrial cancer cells, which express mRNA for GHRH and SV1 of GHRH receptor, presumably through the induction of p53-dependent apoptosis coupled with the up-regulation of Fas, phospho-p53 (Ser46), p53AIP1, and caspase-8, -9, and -3, and the down-regulation of Bcl-2.

PMID: 18292936 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


 Breast Cancer Res. 2008;10(2):R30. Epub 2008 Apr 1.Click here to read Click here to readLinks

Clinical response after two cycles compared to HER2, Ki-67, p53, and bcl-2 in independently predicting a pathological complete response after preoperative chemotherapy in patients with operable carcinoma of the breast.

von Minckwitz G, Sinn HP, Raab G, Loibl S, Blohmer JU, Eidtmann H, Hilfrich J, Merkle E, Jackisch C, Costa SD, Caputo A, Kaufmann M; German Breast Group.

Dept. of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany. Gunter.vonMinckwitz@germanbreastgroup.de

INTRODUCTION: To investigate the predictive value of clinical and biological markers for a pathological complete remission after a preoperative dose-dense regimen of doxorubicin and docetaxel, with or without tamoxifen, in primary operable breast cancer. METHODS: Patients with a histologically confirmed diagnosis of previously untreated, operable, and measurable primary breast cancer (tumour (T), nodes (N) and metastases (M) score: T2-3(> or = 3 cm) N0-2 M0) were treated in a prospectively randomised trial with four cycles of dose-dense (bi-weekly) doxorubicin and docetaxel (ddAT) chemotherapy, with or without tamoxifen, prior to surgery. Clinical and pathological parameters (menopausal status, clinical tumour size and nodal status, grade, and clinical response after two cycles) and a panel of biomarkers (oestrogen and progesterone receptors, Ki-67, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), p53, bcl-2, all detected by immunohistochemistry) were correlated with the detection of a pathological complete response (pCR). RESULTS: A pCR was observed in 9.7% in 248 patients randomised in the study and in 8.6% in the subset of 196 patients with available tumour tissue. Clinically negative axillary lymph nodes, poor tumour differentiation, negative oestrogen receptor status, negative progesterone receptor status, and loss of bcl-2 were significantly predictive for a pCR in a univariate logistic regression model, whereas in a multivariate analysis only the clinical nodal status and hormonal receptor status provided significantly independent information. Backward stepwise logistic regression revealed a response after two cycles, with hormone receptor status and lymph-node status as significant predictors. Patients with a low percentage of cells stained positive for Ki-67 showed a better response when treated with tamoxifen, whereas patients with a high percentage of Ki-67 positive cells did not have an additional benefit when treated with tamoxifen. Tumours overexpressing HER2 showed a similar response to that in HER2-negative patients when treated without tamoxifen, but when HER2-positive tumours were treated with tamoxifen, no pCR was observed. CONCLUSION: Reliable prediction of a pathological complete response after preoperative chemotherapy is not possible with clinical and biological factors routinely determined before start of treatment. The response after two cycles of chemotherapy is a strong but dependent predictor. The only independent factor in this subset of patients was bcl-2.

PMID: 18380893 [PubMed - in process]

Mol Endocrinol. 2004 Jun;18(6):1471-85. Epub 2004 Mar 25.Click here to read Links

Physical and functional interaction of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-I signaling elements.

Huang Y, Kim SO, Yang N, Jiang J, Frank SJ.

Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294-0012, USA.

GH and IGF-I are critical regulators of growth and metabolism. GH interacts with the GH receptor (GHR), a cytokine superfamily receptor, to activate the cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase, Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), and initiate intracellular signaling cascades. IGF-I, produced in part in response to GH, binds to the heterotetrameric IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR), which is an intrinsic tyrosine kinase growth factor receptor that triggers proliferation, antiapoptosis, and other biological actions. Previous in vitro and overexpression studies have suggested that JAKs may interact with IGF-IR and that IGF-I stimulation may activate JAKs. In this study, we explore interactions between GHR-JAK2 and IGF-IR signaling pathway elements utilizing the GH and IGF-I-responsive 3T3-F442A and 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cell lines, which endogenously express both the GHR and IGF-IR. We find that GH induces formation of a complex that includes GHR, JAK2, and IGF-IR in these preadipocytes. The assembly of this complex in intact cells is rapid, GH concentration dependent, and can be prevented by a GH antagonist, G120K. However, it is not inhibited by the kinase inhibitor, staurosporine, which markedly inhibits GHR tyrosine phosphorylation. Moreover, complex formation does not appear dependent on GH-induced activation of the ERK or phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathways or on the tyrosine phosphorylation of GHR, JAK2, or IGF-IR. These results suggest that GH-induced formation of the GHR-JAK2-IGF-IR complex is governed instead by GH-dependent conformational change(s) in the GHR and/or JAK2. We further demonstrate that GH and IGF-I can synergize in acute aspects of signaling and that IGF-I enhances GH-induced assembly of conformationally active GHRs. These findings suggest the existence of previously unappreciated relationships between these two hormones.

PMID: 15044591 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]