Flowchart: Preparation: GLUT4@2

Text Box: StarnvationText Box: Insuline

Glucose Transpoter

Text Box: GLUT2
Text Box: GLUT3

Text Box: GLUT4Text Box: GDPHType2 Diabetes

Cardiac Disease


Text Box: Cyochalasin B 



Br Poult Sci. 2005 Aug;46(4):510-5. Links

Characterisation of glucose transporter (GLUT) gene expression in broiler chickens.

     Kono T, Nishida M, Nishiki YSeki

Y, Sato K, Akiba Y.

Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan.

1. Glucose transporter (GLUT) proteins, one of which is the major insulin-responsive transporter GLUT4, play a crucial role in cellular glucose uptake and glucose homeostasis in mammals. The aim of this study was to identify the extent of mRNA expression of GLUT1, GLUT2, GLUT3 and GLUT8 in chickens intrinsically lacking GLUT4. 2. GLUT1 mRNA was detected in most tissues of 3-week-old broiler chickens, with the highest expression measured in brain and adipose tissue. GLUT2 was expressed only in the liver and kidney. GLUT3 was highly expressed in the brain. GLUT8 was expressed ubiquitously, with expression in kidney and adipose tissue relatively higher than that of other tissues. 3. Expression levels of GLUT isoforms 1, 3 and 8 in skeletal muscle tissue were very low compared to the other tissues tested. 4. [3H]Cytochalasin B binding assays on tissue from 3-week-old chickens showed that the number of cytochalasin B binding sites in skeletal muscle plasma membranes was higher than in liver plasma membranes. These results suggest that GLUT proteins and/or GLUT-like proteins that bind cytochalasin B are expressed in chicken skeletal muscles. 5. It is proposed that GLUT expression and glucose transport in chicken tissues are regulated in a manner different from that in mammals.

PMID: 16268111 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE

J Exp Biol. 2006 Nov 15;209(Pt 22):4490-502.Click here to read  Links

     Hall JR, Short CE, Driedzic WR.

Ocean Sciences Centre, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St John's, Newfoundland, A1C 5S7, Canada.

cDNAs of putative glucose transporters, GLUT4 and GLUT2, were cloned from Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). The GLUT4 cDNA encodes a 503 amino acid and the GLUT2 cDNA a 506 amino acid protein. Phylogenetic analysis, amino acid sequence alignment, and tissue distribution support categorizing them as homologues of mammalian GLUT4 and 2. GLUT4 clusters with GLUT4s from fish and other vertebrates. It shows 84% amino acid identity to GLUT4 from coho salmon and brown trout and 65% identity with other vertebrates. It is most highly expressed in heart, strongly expressed in red and white skeletal muscle and present at lower levels in gill, gonad, intestine, and kidney. GLUT2 clusters with GLUT2 from rainbow trout and other vertebrates. It shows 75% amino acid identity with rainbow trout and 62% identity with chicken GLUT2. In Atlantic cod, GLUT2 is most highly expressed in liver with lower levels noted in intestine and kidney. Food deprivation for 2 months was used as a vehicle to monitor GLUT expression at different blood glucose levels. Starvation resulted in a decrease in blood glucose and liver glycogen that recovered following 20 days of re-feeding. GLUT4 expression in heart was decreased with starvation and increased with re-feeding. GLUT4 mRNA level in heart correlated with blood glucose. It is suggested that this relationship is related to insulin responsiveness. GLUT4 expression in white muscle increased with starvation and decreased with re-feeding. It is proposed that this is due to the necessity to maintain high levels of the glucose transporter protein in the face of starvation-associated proteolysis. GLUT2 expression in liver correlated with blood glucose, consistent with higher rates of glucose transport from liver to blood in the fed state than in the food-deprived state. Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) cDNA was also cloned. It encodes a 351 amino acid protein, which is 73-90% identical to GPDH from numerous other fish species. GPDH is ubiquitously expressed. Expression in heart decreased with starvation and increased with refeeding, whereas expression in liver did not change with starvation. In other studies, gene expression was monitored at nine time points from fertilization of eggs to larval development. GLUT4 is detectable in fertilized eggs and is fully expressed by the halfway to hatching point. GLUT2 is not evident at fertilization, is detectable at halfway to hatching, and fully expressed at hatching. GPDH expression was evident from fertilization.

PMID: 17079719 [PubMed - in process]