Flowchart: Preparation: Glut1









Text Box: P53Text Box: Glut1                                                                                           






Text Box: H1Text Box: P63Breast

Thyroid carcinoma                                                          




Pathol Res Pract. 2006;202(11):759-65. Epub 2006 Oct 6.Click here to read  Links

Expression of the GLUT1 glucose transporter, p63 and p53 in thyroid carcinomas.

P     Kim YW, Do IG, Park YK.

Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, #1 Hoiki-dong, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-701, Republic of Korea. kimyw@khu.ac.kr

Only few studies have evaluated the usefulness of the GLUT1 and p63 status of thyroid carcinomas in revealing tumorigenesis. We studied GLUT1, p53, and p63 immunoexpression in a total of 86 cases of various thyroid carcinoma types to determine the biological significance of GLUT1 and p63 expression in thyroid carcinomas. GLUT1 was detected in six cases of anaplastic carcinoma and in one case of poorly differentiated carcinoma with membranous staining. p63 was detected in five cases of anaplastic carcinoma, in one case of poorly differentiated carcinoma, and in five cases of papillary carcinoma with nuclear positivity. p53 was detected in six cases of anaplastic carcinoma, in one case of poorly differentiated carcinoma, and in one case of follicular carcinoma with nuclear positivity. Five of seven cases of anaplastic carcinoma expressed all three of these markers. The results suggest that GLUT1, p63, and p53 are not expressed in well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas, and that they are usually expressed late in the course of thyroid tumor progression. These data strongly suggest that in anaplastic carcinomas, impairment of p53-mediated repression results in increased GLUT1 and p63 expression, and that this probably reflects the differential regulation of hypoxia-responsive pathways and basal/stem cell regulatory pathways.

PMID: 17029809 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE

Histopathology. 2006 Jul;49(1):75-81.Click here to read  Links

GLUT1 and p63 expression in endometrial intraepithelial and uterine serous papillary carcinoma.

P     Idrees MT, Schlosshauer P, Li G, Burstein DE.

Department of Pathology, The Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA.

AIMS: To analyse the expression patterns of GLUT1, p63 and p53 and the possible correlation between these markers in uterine serous papillary carcinoma (USPC) and endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma (EIC). METHODS AND RESULTS: Fourteen cases of USPC, 12 of which also showed EIC, were examined for GLUT1, p63 and p53 immunoreactivity. Four-micrometre sections from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue were immunostained using commercially available primary antibodies and Dako Envision Plus reagents for visualization. Membranous GLUT1 immunoreactivity was observed in all cases, including all 14 invasive tumours (100%) and 11 of 12 associated EICs (92%), and was confined to neoplastic cells. In USPC, staining tended to be strongest in superficial antistromal regions. p63 positivity was found in 8/14 (57%) USPCs and 9/12 (75%) associated EICs. In 11 cases p53 was overexpressed in both invasive USPC (11/14; 79%) and EIC (11/12; 92%). p53+ USPCs tended to be positive for p63, whereas p53- USPCs were also negative for p63. CONCLUSIONS: GLUT1 is expressed in the vast majority of USPC and EIC, suggesting a biological role during the early steps of carcinogenesis in endometrial serous neoplasms. GLUT1 expression may be induced by hypoxia-related as well as other mechanisms.

PMID: 16842248 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE

Kaohsiung J Med Sci. 2006 Jul;22(7):339-45.Click here to read  Links

Expression of glucose transporter-1 in Taiwanese patients with breast carcinoma--a preliminary report.

P     Kuo SJ, Wu YC, Chen CP, Tseng HS, Chen DR.

Comprehensive Breast Cancer Center, Changhua Christian Hospital, Taiwan.

Malignant cells show increased glucose uptake in vitro and in vivo. High expression of the glucose transporter-1 gene (GLUT1) has been found in many human tumor tissues. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between GLUT1 expression in breast carcinomas of Taiwanese patients and clinical prognostic parameters. Twenty-eight (71.8%) of the 39 breast carcinomas analyzed showed positive GLUT1 expression with different intensities: 1+, 19 cases (48.7%); 2+, 6 cases (15.4%), 3+, 3 cases (7.7%). No significant correlation was seen between GLUT1 expression and clinical prognostic parameters such as tumor size (p = 0.085), age (p = 0.4528), axillary lymph node metastasis (p = 0.9562), nuclear grade (p = 0.6895), estrogen receptor-positive (p = 1.0000), and progesterone receptor-positive (p = 0.9689).

PMID: 16849102 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE

Histopathology. 2006 May;48(6):708-16.Click here to read  Links

Immunohistochemical detection of GLUT1, p63 and phosphorylated histone H1 in head and neck squamous intraepithelial neoplasia: evidence for aberrations in hypoxia-related, cell cycle- and stem-cell-regulatory pathways.

P     Burstein DE, Nagi C, Kohtz DS, Lumerman H, Wang BY.

Department of Pathology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA. david.burstein@mssm.edu

AIM: Most epithelial malignancies are characterized by multistep progression from preinvasive/intraepithelial neoplasia to invasive malignancy. Detection and grading of early squamous intraepithelial neoplasia may at times be problematic. The aim of this study was to examine the ability of immunomarkers GLUT1, phospho-histone H1 and p63 to detect such early lesions. METHODS: Sections of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue from 27 cases of squamous intraepithelial neoplasia, 26 associated with invasive carcinoma, were immunostained with anti-p63 (4A4; Santa Cruz), anti-GLUT1 (Chemicon) and anti-phospho-histone H1 (monoclonal 12D11) and compared with normal, hyperplastic and immature squamous metaplastic epithelium. RESULTS: Normal epithelium displayed phospho-histone H1 in scattered parabasal cells; p63 in the basal one-quarter to one-half of epithelium; and GLUT1 negativity or weak/equivocal mid-epithelial GLUT1+ foci. In hyperplasia phospho-histone H1+ cells were also limited to the parabasal layer; p63 positivity was essentially identical to that in normal epithelium; GLUT1 characteristically stained basal cells in rete-like areas. p63 staining in squamous intraepithelial neoplasia (grade 1) was indistinguishable from normal epithelial staining; in contrast, squamous intraepithelial neoplasia (grade 3) was readily apparent, with up to full-thickness p63 positivity. Squamous intraepithelial neoplasia (grade 1) was readily distinguishable from normal epithelium with both phospho-histone H1 and GLUT1 immunostaining; both markers were detected in cell layers above the parabasal layer. With both, progressively higher cell layers stained in proportion to the severity of the intraepithelial neoplasia, up to full thickness positivity in grade 3 squamous intraepithelial neoplasia. Squamous metaplasia and grade 3 squamous intraepithelial neoplasia were not distinguishable with p63 (both showed full-thickness staining) but were readily distinguishable with GLUT1 and phospho-histone H1 stains. GLUT1 appeared to be the most sensitive marker for all grades of intraepithelial neoplasia. CONCLUSION: Altered expression of all three markers was a common finding in squamous intraepithelial neoplasia, hence, dysregulation of cell cycle-promoting cyclin-dependent kinases (phospho-histone H1), altered stem cell regulatory pathways (p63) and enhancement of hypoxia-sensing pathways (GLUT1) are all early alterations in the progression of squamous malignancy of head and neck origin. A panel of all three may be a useful means of detecting squamous intraepithelial neoplasia.

PMID: 16681687 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]