Flowchart: Preparation: Gh

Text Box: Estrogen                 

Text Box: Socs-2





Text Box: Gh 


Text Box: GhrhCardiovascular disease                                                               


Text Box: Jak2                                                 


Text Box: Endothelial progenitor cellsText Box: Igf-1                                                          





Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Feb 4;100(3):1016-21. Epub 2003 Jan 27.Click here to read Click here to read  Links

Estrogen inhibits GH signaling by suppressing GH-induced JAK2 phosphorylation, an effect mediated by SOCS-2.

P     Leung KC, Doyle N, Ballesteros M, Sjogren K, Watts CK,Low

 TH , Leong GM, Ross RJ, Ho KK.

Pituitary Research Unit and Cancer Research Program, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, St. Vincent's Hospital, Sydney NSW 2010, Australia. k.leung@garvan.org.au

Oral estrogen administration attenuates the metabolic action of growth hormone (GH) in humans. To investigate the mechanism involved, we studied the effects of estrogen on GH signaling through Janus kinase (JAK)2 and the signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) in HEK293 cells stably expressing the GH receptor (293GHR), HuH7 (hepatoma) and T-47D (breast cancer) cells. 293GHR cells were transiently transfected with an estrogen receptor-alpha expression plasmid and luciferase reporters with binding elements for STAT3 and STAT5 or the beta-casein promoter. GH stimulated the reporter activities by four- to sixfold. Cotreatment with 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in the response of all three reporters to GH to a maximum of 49-66% of control at 100 nM (P < 0.05). No reduction was seen when E(2) was added 1-2 h after GH treatment. Similar inhibitory effects were observed in HuH7 and T-47D cells. E(2) suppressed GH-induced JAK2 phosphorylation, an effect attenuated by actinomycin D, suggesting a requirement for gene expression. Next, we investigated the role of the suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) in E(2) inhibition. E(2) increased the mRNA abundance of SOCS-2 but not SOCS-1 and SOCS-3 in HEK293 cells. The inhibitory effect of E(2) was absent in cells lacking SOCS-2 but not in those lacking SOCS-1 and SOCS-3. In conclusion, estrogen inhibits GH signaling, an action mediated by SOCS-2. This paper provides evidence for regulatory interaction between a sex steroid and the GHJAKSTAT pathway, in which SOCS-2 plays a central mechanistic role.

PMID: 12552091 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Circ Res. 2007 Feb 16;100(3):434-43. Epub 2007 Jan 18.Click here to read  Links

P     Thum T, Hoeber S, Froese S, Klink I, Stichtenoth DO, Galuppo P, Jakob M, Tsikas D, Anker SD, Poole-Wilson PA, Borlak J, Ertl G, Bauersachs J.

Universitat Wurzburg, Medizinische Klinik I (Kardiologie), Wurzburg, Germany. Thum_T@klinik.uni-wuerzburg.de

Aging is associated with an increased risk for atherosclerosis. A possible cause is low numbers and dysfunction of endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) which insufficiently repair damaged vascular walls. We hypothesized that decreased levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) during age contribute to dysfunctional EPC. We measured the effect of growth hormone (GH), which increases endogenous IGF-1 levels, on EPC in mice and human subjects. We compared EPC number and function in healthy middle-aged male volunteers (57.4+/-1.4 years) before and after a 10 day treatment with recombinant GH (0.4 mg/d) with that of younger and elderly male subjects (27.5+/-0.9 and 74.1+/-0.9 years). Middle-aged and elderly subjects had lower circulating CD133(+)/VEGFR-2(+) EPC with impaired function and increased senescence. GH treatment in middle-aged subjects elevated IGF-1 levels (126.0+/-7.2 ng/mL versus 241.1+/-13.8 ng/mL; P<0.0001), increased circulating EPC with improved colony forming and migratory capacity, enhanced incorporation into tube-like structures, and augmented endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression in EPC comparable to that of the younger group. EPC senescence was attenuated, whereas telomerase activity was increased after GH treatment. Treatment of aged mice with GH (7 days) or IGF-1 increased IGF-1 and EPC levels and improved EPC function, whereas a two day GH treatment did not alter IGF-1 or EPC levels. Ex vivo treatment of EPC from elderly individuals with IGF-1 improved function and attenuated cellular senescence. IGF-1 stimulated EPC differentiation, migratory capacity and the ability to incorporate into forming vascular networks in vitro via the IGF-1 receptor. IGF-1 increased telomerase activity, endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression, phosphorylation and activity in EPC in a phosphoinositide-3-kinase/Akt dependent manner. Small interference RNA-mediated knockdown of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in EPC abolished the IGF-1 effects. Growth hormone-mediated increase in IGF-1 reverses age-related EPC dysfunction and may be a novel therapeutic strategy against vascular disorders with impairment of EPC.

PMID: 17234973 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

J Endocrinol Invest. 2006 Oct;29(9):805-8.Click here to read  Links

P     Salvatori R, Serpa MG, Parmigiani G, Britto AV, Oliveira JL, Oliveira CR, Prado CM, Farias CT, Almeida JC,

P     Vicente TA, Aguiar-Oliveira MH.

Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA. salvator@jhmi.edu

GH secretion by the pituitary is the result of the balance between the stimulatory effect of GHRH and the inhibitory effect of SS. Patients with mutations in GHRH receptor (GHRH-R) gene (GHRH-R) offer a unique model to study the mechanism of action of different GH secretion stimuli. In the past, we have demonstrated a small but significant GH response to a GH secretagogue (GHRP-2) in a homogenous cohort of patients with severe GH deficiency (GHD) due to a homozygous null mutation in GHRH-R (IVS1+1G-->A). Now, we sought to determine if we could detect a GH response to hypoglycemia (ITT: insulin tolerance test) or clonidine (CL) in these patients. Nine young GHD subjects underwent both ITT and CL tests, and 2 additional subjects underwent only CL test. There was a small but significant GH increase during ITT, but not during CL test. These results indicate that a minimal albeit significant GH response to ITT can occur despite complete lack of GHRH-R function.

PMID: 17114911 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE