J Immunol. 2006 Jun 15;176(12):7325-34. Lab Invest.
2006 May 15; [Epub ahead of print] J
Bone Miner Res. 2006 Jun;21(6):946-55.
Chronic Immune Therapy Induces a Progressive Increase in Intratumoral T Suppressor Activity and a Concurrent Loss of Tumor-Specific CD8+ T Effectors in her-2/neu Transgenic Mice Bearing Advanced Spontaneous Tumors.
Nair RE, Kilinc MO, Jones SA, Egilmez NK.
A single intratumoral injection of IL-12 and GM-CSF-encapsulated microspheres induces the complete regression of advanced spontaneous tumors in her-2/neu transgenic mice. However, tumor regression in this model is transient and long-term cure is not achieved due to recurrence. Posttherapy molecular analysis of immune activation/suppression markers within the tumor microenvironment demonstrated a dramatic up-regulation of IFN-gamma and a concomitant down-regulation of Forkhead/winged-helix protein 3 (Foxp3), TGFbeta, and IL-10 expression. Therapy-induced reversion of immune suppression was transient since all three markers of suppression recovered rapidly and surpassed pretherapy levels by day 7 after treatment, resulting in tumor resurgence. Repeated treatment enhanced short-term tumor regression, but did not augment long-term survival. Serial long-term analysis demonstrated that although chronic stimulation enhanced the IFN-gamma response, this was countered by a parallel increase in Foxp3, TGFbeta, and IL-10 expression. Analysis of tumor-infiltrating T lymphocyte populations showed that the expression of Foxp3 and IL-10 was associated with CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells. Repeated treatment resulted in a progressive increase in tumor-infiltrating CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T suppressor cells establishing their role in long-term neutralization of antitumor activity. Analysis of tumor-infiltrating CD8(+) T cells demonstrated that although treatment enhanced IFN-gamma production, antitumor cytotoxicity was diminished. Monitoring of CD8(+) T cells that specifically recognized a dominant MHC class I her-2/neu peptide showed a dramatic increase in tetramer-specific CD8(+) T cells after the first treatment; however, continuous therapy resulted in the loss of this population. These results demonstrate that both enhanced suppressor activity and deletion of tumor-specific T cells are responsible for the progressive loss of efficacy that is associated with chronic immune therapy.
PMID: 16751376 [PubMed - in process]
UBD, a downstream element of FOXP3, allows the identification of LGALS3, a new marker of human regulatory T cells.
Ocklenburg F, Moharregh-Khiabani D, Geffers R, Janke V, Pfoertner S, Garritsen H, Groebe L, Klempnauer J, Dittmar KE, Weiss S, Buer J, Probst-Kepper M.
1Junior Research Group for Xenotransplantation, Department of Visceral and Transplant Surgery,
Here, we report the identification of the ubiquitin-like gene UBD as a downstream element of FOXP3 in human activated regulatory CD4(+)CD25(hi) T cells (T(reg)). Retroviral transduction of UBD in human allo-reactive effector CD4(+) T helper (T(h)) cells upregulates CD25 and mediates downregulation of IL4 and IL5 expression similar to overexpression of FOXP3. Moreover, UBD impairs T(h) cell proliferation without upregulation of FOXP3 and impairs calcium mobilization. In the presence of ionomycin, overexpression of UBD in T(h) cells leads to the induction of IL1R2 that resemble FOXP3-transduced T(h) cells and naturally derived T(reg) cells. A comparison of the transcriptome of FOXP3- and UBD-transduced T(h) cells with T(reg) cells allowed the identification of the gene LGALS3. However, high levels of LGALS3 protein expression were observed only in human CD4(+)CD25(hi) derived T(reg) cells and FOXP3-transduced T(h) cells, whereas little was induced in UBD-transduced T(h) cells. Thus, UBD contributes to the anergic phenotype of human regulatory T cells and acts downstream in FOXP3 induced regulatory signaling pathways, including regulation of LGALS3 expression. High levels of LGALS3 expression represent a FOXP3-signature of human antigen-stimulated CD4(+)CD25(hi) derived regulatory T cells.Laboratory Investigation advance online publication, 15 May 2006; doi:10.1038/labinvest.3700432.
PMID: 16702978 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Fibroblast growth factor-2 is an immediate-early gene induced by mechanical stress in osteogenic cells.
Li CF, Hughes-Fulford M.
Laboratory of Cell Growth, Northern California Institute for Research and Education, San Francisco, California, USA.
Fifteen minutes of physiological MS induces FGF-2 in osteogenic cells. Here, we show that MS induced proliferation in both MC3T3-E1 and BMOp cells isolated from Fgf2(+/+) mice; Fgf2(-/-) BMOp cells required exogenous FGF-2 for a normal proliferation response. The induction of fgf-2 is mediated by PKA and ERK pathways. INTRODUCTION: Mechanical stress (MS) induces gene expression and proliferation of osteogenic MC3T3-E1 cells. We have previously shown that physiological levels of MS in MC3T3-E1 cells causes extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 phosphorylation. Here we evaluate the induction and importance of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) for MS-induced proliferation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We characterized the MS induction of fgf-2 using a 15-minute pulse of 120 mustrain and studied the stability of fgf-2 message using actinomycin D. Bone marrow stromal cells (BMOp) isolated from Fgf2(-/-) and Fgf2(+/+) mice were used to study the importance of FGF-2 in MS-induced proliferation. RESULTS: We found that the induction of fgf-2 by MS is dependent on both protein kinase A (PKA) and ERK pathways. MS transiently induces fgf-2 within 30 minutes. FGF-2 receptor (FGFR2) was also significantly increased within 1 h. All three isoforms of FGF-2 (24, 22, and 18 kDa) were significantly increased by MS. The MS-mediated increase of fgf-2 mRNA was caused by new synthesis and not stabilization. Pretreatment of MC3T3-E1 cells with cycloheximide showed that the induction of fgf-2 did not require new protein synthesis. Pretreating MC3T3-E1 cells with the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/ERK kinase 1/2 (MEK1/2) inhibitor, U0126, or H-89, a PKA inhibitor, significantly inhibited the induction of fgf-2, showing that mechanical induction of fgf-2 is dependent on ERK and PKA signaling pathways. The downstream consequence of a single 15-minute stress pulse was a 3.5-fold increase in cell number in MC3T3-E1 compared with growth in nonstressed control cells. In studies using bone marrow osteoprogenitor cells (BMOp) isolated from Fgf2(+/+)and Fgf2(-/-) mice, we found that FGF-2 was necessary for a full proliferative response to MS. CONCLUSIONS: These studies show that FGF-2 is an immediate-early gene induced by MS, and its expression is mediated by both the PKA and MAPK signal transduction pathways. FGF-2 was required for a full proliferative response.
PMID: 16753025 [PubMed - in process]
J Immunol. 2006 Jun 15;176(12):7325-34.
Lab Invest. 2006 May 15; [Epub ahead of print]
J Bone Miner Res. 2006 Jun;21(6):946-55.