ERK

                Mek     

ERK

 

 
 

 

                

               

c-FOS

 

 

To investigate the mechanisms responsible for survival and apoptosis/anoikis in normal human intestinal epithelial crypt cells, we analyzed the roles of various signaling pathways and cell adhesion on the expression of six Bcl-2 homologs (Bcl-2, Bcl-X(L), Mcl-1, Bax, Bak, Bad) in the well established HIEC-6 cell model. Pharmacological inhibitors and/or dominant-negative constructs were used to inhibit focal adhesion kinase (Fak) and p38 isoforms, as well as the phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3-K)/Akt-1 and mitogen-activated protein kinase [MAPK] kinase (MEK)/extracellular regulated kinases (Erk) pathways. Cell adhesion was disrupted by antibody-inhibition of integrin binding or forced cell suspension. The activation levels of studied kinase pathways were also analyzed. Herein, we report that beta1 integrins, Fak, and the PI3-K/Akt-1 pathway, but not beta4 integrins or the MEK/Erk pathway, are crucial for the survival of HIEC-6 cells. Conversely, p38beta, but not p38alpha or gamma, is required for the induction of apoptosis/anoikis in HIEC-6 cells. However, each of the signaling molecules/pathways analyzed were found to affect distinctively the individual expression of the Bcl-2 homologs studied. For example, the inhibition of the PI3-K/Akt-1 pathway down-regulated Bcl-X(L), Mcl-1, and Bad, while at the same time up-regulating Bax, whereas the inhibition of Fak up-regulated both Bax and Bak, down-regulated Bad, and did not affect the other Bcl-2 homologs analyzed. These results indicate that integrins, Fak, PI3-K/Akt-1, MEK/Erk, and p38 isoforms perform distinct roles in the regulation of HIEC-6 cell survival and/or death. In addition, our data show that the functions performed by these molecules/pathways in promoting cell survival or apoptosis/anoikis translate into complex, differential modulations of individual Bcl-2 homologs. J. Cell. Physiol. 198: 209-222, 2004Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

PMID: 14603523 [PubMed - in process]