Flowchart: Preparation: Drg1


Text Box: Dfrp1Text Box: Dfrp2                                            




Colorectal Cancer          


Text Box: Drg2Text Box: Drg1                                              





Genes Cells. 2005 Feb;10(2):139-50.Click here to read  Links

Identification of DRG family regulatory proteins (DFRPs): specific regulation of DRG1 and DRG2.

P     Ishikawa K, Azuma S, Ikawa S, Semba K, Inoue J.

Division of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Department of Cancer Biology, Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minatoku, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan.

DRG1 and DRG2 comprise a highly conserved subfamily of GTP-binding proteins and are thought to act as critical regulators of cell growth. Their abnormal expressions may trigger cell transformation or cell cycle arrest. Our aim is to clarify their physiological functions and regulatory mechanisms. Here we report identification of novel proteins, DRG family regulatory protein (DFRP) 1 and DFRP2, which regulate expression of DRG proteins through specific binding. In transient transfection experiments, DFRP1 specifically binds DRG1, and DFRP2 preferentially binds DRG2. DFRPs provide stability to the target DRG proteins through physical association, possibly by blocking the poly-ubiquitination that would precede proteolysis of DRG proteins. DFRPs are highly conserved in eucaryotes, and the expression patterns of dfrp1 and drg1 transcripts in Xenopus embryos and tissues are similar, indicating that these genes work cooperatively in various types of eukaryotic cells. Immunofluorescence experiments have revealed that the interaction between DRG1 and DFRP1 may occur in the cytoplasm. We generated dfrp1- knockout cells and found that endogenous expression of DRG1 is regulated by DFRP1, confirming that DFRP1 is a specific up-regulator of DRG1 in vivo. On the basis of these results, we propose that DRG1 and DRG2 are regulated differently despite their structural similarities.

Clin Cancer Res. 2005 May 1;11(9):3296-302.Click here to read  Links

Drg1 expression in 131 colorectal liver metastases: correlation with clinical variables and patient outcomes.


Shah MA, Kemeny N, Hummer A, Drobnjak M, Motwan  Cordon-Cardo C,Gonen


, Schwartz GK.

Department of Medicine, Division of Solid Tumor Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10021, USA.

PURPOSE: The differentiation-related gene-1 (Drg1) is a recently identified gene down-regulated in malignancy and a putative suppressor of colorectal cancer metastases. Its expression is associated with improved survival in patients with prostate or breast cancer. Drg1 expression is also associated with resistance to irinotecan therapy in preclinical colorectal cancer models. The clinical evaluation of Drg1 in colorectal cancer has been limited. We performed this study to evaluate the role of Drg1 in a large cohort of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer who were irinotecan naive. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We examined Drg1 expression by immunohistochemistry in 131 patients with metastatic colorectal cancer enrolled in a clinical trial of adjuvant fluorouracil-based therapy from 1991 to 1995. We correlated expression of Drg1 to numerous clinical and tumor related variables and to patient outcomes, including a subset of patients who recurred and received irinotecan-based therapy. RESULTS: Drg1 expression was identified in all metastatic tissue samples. There was a trend for unilobar metastases with high Drg1 expression (P = 0.07) and a suggestion of improved 2-year survival (82.4% versus 69.6%, P = 0.148). High Drg1 expression suggested irinotecan resistance (P = 0.07). CONCLUSIONS: In colorectal cancer, Drg1 expression may be associated with a less aggressive, indolent colorectal cancer. High Drg1 may also be associated with relative resistance to irinotecan. The role of Drg1 in malignancy continues to be defined.

PMID: 15867226 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Clin Cancer Res. 2005 May 15;11(10):3836-45.Click here to read  Links

P     Shah MA, Kortmansky J, Motwani M, Drobnjak M, Gonen M, Yi S, Weyerbacher A, Cordon-Cardo C, Lefkowitz R, Brenner B, O'Reilly E, Saltz L, Tong W, Kelsen DP, Schwartz GK.

Department of Medicine, Division of Solid Tumor Oncology, Gastrointestinal Oncology Service, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, USA.

PURPOSE: Flavopiridol potently enhances the effect of irinotecan with cures in colorectal cancer xenografts, and is associated with modulation of several molecular targets, including p21, Differentiation-related gene 1 (Drg1), and p53. We initiated a phase I trial of the sequential combination of irinotecan followed by flavopiridol to determine the maximal tolerated dose of this combination therapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty-five patients with advanced solid tumors were enrolled. Irinotecan was administered first (100 or 125 mg/m(2)) followed 7 hours later by escalating flavopiridol (10-70 mg/m(2)) given weekly over 1 hour for 4 of 6 weeks. At the maximal tolerated dose, the pharmacokinetic analysis was expanded and pre- and posttreatment tumor biopsies were done. RESULTS: At irinotecan 100 mg/m(2), dose-limiting diarrhea and myelosuppression were observed with flavopiridol 70 mg/m(2). At irinotecan 125 mg/m(2), we observed dose-limiting hyperbilirubinemia, fatigue, and myelosuppression at flavopiridol 60 mg/m(2). Peak flavopiridol concentrations of >/=2 mumol/L were achieved above flavopiridol 50 mg/m(2). No significant pharmacokinetic interactions with irinotecan were noted. Baseline serum bilirubin significantly predicted cycle 1 dose-limiting toxicity and neutropenia. We observed partial responses in three patients and prolonged stable disease (i.e., >6 months) in 36% of patients including adrenocortical cancer and hepatocellular cancer. Patients with wild-type p53 and either no change or low posttreatment biopsy p21 and a decrease in Drg1 expression showed stable or responsive disease to the combination therapy. CONCLUSIONS: The recommended phase II dose with irinotecan 100 mg/m(2) is flavopiridol 60 mg/m(2) and with irinotecan 125 mg/m(2) is flavopiridol 50 mg/m(2). Toxicity can be predicted by baseline bilirubin. Clinical activity is encouraging and may correlate to changes in p21 and Drg1 levels in patients with wild type p53 tumors following therapy.

PMID: 15897584 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]