Flowchart: Preparation: DAT










Text Box: GBR12909

Text Box: 3,6 Piperidine





Cocaine abuse                                           

Text Box: SERT
Text Box: DAT

Text Box: ERa











Genet Test. 2006 Spring;10(1):31-4.

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The VNTR polymorphism in the human dopamine transporter gene: improved detection and absence of association of VNTR alleles with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Simsek M, Al-Sharbati M, Al-Adawi S, Lawatia K.

Department of Biochemistry,
College of Medicine, Sultanate of Oman. mssimsek@omantel.net.om

The human dopamine transporter (DAT1) gene contains a variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) in its 3'-untranslated region because of repetition of a 40-bp core sequence. Methods available for the diagnosis of this polymorphism are limited in number. We have developed a new polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test, which is similar to that described originally by Vandenbergh's group, but provides a better detection of the VNTR alleles in the human DAT1 gene. Using two independent PCR methods, we have determined the distribution of VNTR alleles in 110 healthy Omani subjects, and in 92 children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The frequency of the risk allele (DAT1*10) was similar in the healthy subjects and ADHD cases, indicating absence of association of this allele with ADHD in

PMID: 16545000 [PubMed - in process]


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Interaction of cis-(6-benzhydrylpiperidin-3-yl)benzylamine analogues with monoamine transporters: structure-activity relationship study of structurally constrained 3,6-disubstituted piperidine analogues of (2,2-diphenylethyl)-[1-(4-fluorobenzyl)piperidin-4-ylmethyl]amine.

Kolhatkar RB, Ghorai SK, George C, Reith ME, Dutta AK.

Wayne State University, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Detroit, Michigan 48202, USA.

To explore structure-activity relationships (SAR) of a novel conformationally constrained lead cis-3,6-disubstituted piperidine derivative derived from (2,2-diphenylethyl)-[1-(4-fluorobenzyl)piperidine-4-ylmethyl]amine (I), a series of compounds was synthesized by derivatizing the exocyclic N-atom at the 3-position of the lead. This study led to the formation of substituted phenyl and heterocyclic derivatives. All novel compounds were tested for their affinity at the dopamine transporter (DAT), serotonin transporter (SERT), and norepinephrine transporter (NET) in the brain by measuring their potency in competing for the binding of [3H]WIN 35 428, [3H]citalopram, and [3H]nisoxetine, respectively. Selected compounds were also evaluated for their activity in inhibiting the uptake of [3H]DA. The SAR results demonstrated that the nature of substitutions on the phenyl ring is important in activity at the DAT with the presence of an electron-withdrawing group having the maximum effect on potency. Replacement of the phenyl ring in the benzyl group by heterocyclic moieties resulted in the development of compounds with moderate activity for the DAT. Two most potent racemic compounds were separated by a diastereoisomeric separation procedure, and differential affinities were observed for the enantiomers. Absolute configuration of the enantiomers was obtained unambiguously by X-ray crystal structural study. One of the enantiomers, compound S,S-(-)-19a, exhibited the highest potency for the DAT (IC50 = 11.3 nM) among all the compounds tested and was as potent as GBR 12909 (1-[2-[bis(4-fluorophenyl)methoxy]ethyl]-4-(3-phenylpropyl)piperazine). However, the compound (-)-19a was more selective than GBR 12909 in binding to the DAT compared with binding to the SERT and NET. The present results establish the newly developed 3,6-disubstituted piperidine derivatives as a novel template for high-affinity inhibitors of DAT. Structurally these molecules are more constrained compared to our earlier flexible piperidine molecules and, thus, should provide more insights about their bioactive conformations.

PMID: 12747792 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005 Aug;314(2):906-15. Epub 2005 Apr 28.

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Studies of the biogenic amine transporters. XI. Identification of a 1-[2-[bis(4-fluorophenyl)methoxy]ethyl]-4-(3-phenylpropyl)piperazine (GBR12909) analog that allosterically modulates the serotonin transporter.

Nightingale B, Dersch CM, Boos TL, Greiner E, Calhoun WJ, Jacobson AE, Rice KC, Rothman RB.

Clinical Psychopharmacology Section, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, 5500 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA.

Previous studies identified partial inhibitors of serotonin (5-HT) transporter and dopamine transporter binding. We report here on a partial inhibitor of 5-HT transporter (SERT) binding identified among a group of 1-[2-[bis(4-fluorophenyl)methoxy]ethyl]-4-(3-phenylpropyl)piperazine analogs (4-[2-[bis(4-fluorophenyl)-methoxy]ethyl]-1-(2-trifluoromethyl-benzyl)-piperidine; TB-1-099). Membranes were prepared from rat brains or human embryonic kidney cells expressing the cloned human dopamine (hDAT), serotonin (hSERT), and norepinephrine (hNET) transporters. beta-(4'-(125)Iodophenyl)tropan-2beta-carboxylic acid methyl ester ([(125)I]RTI-55) binding and other assays followed published procedures. Using rat brain membranes, TB-1-099 weakly inhibited DAT binding (K(i) = 439 nM), was inactive at NET binding ([(3)H]nisoxetine), and partially inhibited SERT binding with an extrapolated plateau ("A" value) of 20%. Similarly, TB-1-099 partially inhibited [(125)I]RTI-55 binding to hSERT with an extrapolated plateau (A value) of 14%. Upon examining the effect of increasing concentrations of TB-1-099 on the apparent K(d) and B(max) of [(125)I]RTI-55 binding to hSERT, we found that TB-1-099 decreased the B(max) in a dose-dependent manner and affected the apparent K(d) in a manner well described by a sigmoid dose-response curve. TB-1-099 increased the K(d) but not to the magnitude expected for a competitive inhibitor. In rat brain synaptosomes, TB-1-099 noncompetitively inhibited [(3)H]5-HT, but not [(3)H]dopamine, uptake. Dissociation experiments indicated that TB-1-099 promoted the rapid dissociation of a small component of [(125)I]RTI-55 binding to hSERT. Association experiments demonstrated that TB-1-099 slowed [(125)I]RTI-55 binding to hSERT in a manner unlike that of the competitive inhibitor indatraline. Viewed collectively, these results support the hypothesis that TB-1-099 allosterically modulates hSERT binding and function.

J Med Chem. 2002 Mar 14;45(6):1321-9.

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Development of long-acting dopamine transporter ligands as potential cocaine-abuse therapeutic agents: chiral hydroxyl-containing derivatives of 1-[2-[bis(4-fluorophenyl)methoxy]ethyl]-4-(3-phenylpropyl)piperazine and 1-[2-(diphenylmethoxy)ethyl]-4-(3-phenylpropyl)piperazine.

Hsin LW, Dersch CM, Baumann MH, Stafford D, Glowa JR, Rothman RB, Jacobson AE, Rice KC.

Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health,
Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.

In our search for long-acting agents for the treatment of cocaine abuse, a series of optically pure hydroxylated derivatives of 1-[2-[bis(4-fluorophenyl)methoxy]ethyl]-4-(3-phenylpropyl)piperazine (1) and 1-[2-(diphenylmethoxy)ethyl]-4-(3-phenylpropyl)piperazine (2) (GBR 12909 and GBR 12935, respectively) were synthesized and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The enantiomers of the 2-hydroxylated analogues displayed substantial enantioselectivity. The S enantiomers displayed higher dopamine transporter (DAT) affinity and the R enantiomers were found to interact at the serotonin transporter (SERT) with higher affinity. The two-carbon spacer between the hydroxyl group and the piperazine ring was essential for enantioselectivity, and the length of the alkyl chain between the phenyl group and the piperazine ring influenced binding affinity and selectivity for the DAT and SERT. Phenylethyl analogues had a higher binding affinity for the SERT and a weaker affinity and selectivity for the DAT than the corresponding phenylpropyl analogues. Thus, (S)-(+)-1-[4-[2-[bis(4-fluorophenyl)methoxy]ethyl]piperazinyl]-3-phenylpropan-2-ol (6) displayed the highest affinity to the DAT, and (S)-(+)-1-[4-[2-(diphenylmethoxy)ethyl]piperazinyl]-3-phenylpropan-2-ol (8) had the highest selectivity. The latter (8) is one of the most DAT selective ligands known. In accord with the in vitro data, 6 showed greater potency than 7 in elevating extracellular dopamine levels in a microdialysis assay and in inhibiting cocaine-maintained responding in rhesus monkeys.

PMID: 11882001 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2003 Feb 10;13(3):553-6.

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Synthesis and dopamine transporter affinity of chiral 1-[2-[bis(4-fluorophenyl)methoxy]ethyl]-4-(2-hydroxypropyl)piperazines as potential cocaine abuse therapeutic agents.

Hsin LW, Prisinzano T, Wilkerson CR, Dersch CM, Horel R, Jacobson AE, Rothman RB, Rice KC.

Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health,
Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

A series of optically pure phenyl-and non-phenyl-substituted 1-[2-[bis(4-fluorophenyl)methoxy]ethyl]-4-(2-hydroxypropyl)piperazines was synthesized and their binding affinity for dopamine transporter (DAT) was investigated. The analogues with a hydroxyl group in the S configuration were more selective for the DAT over the serotonin transporter (SERT) than the corresponding R enantiomers. Compound (+)-11 showed high affinity and selectivity for DAT over the SERT and, therefore, is a potential candidate for the development of a long-acting cocaine abuse therapeutic agent.

PMID: 12565970 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]