Flowchart: Preparation: C-Myc           







Text Box: Max

Text Box: Erk2

Text Box: Erk1



Text Box: c-Jun

Text Box: Syk


Text Box: C-Myc








                                          DNA Transtription

                                          Cytokine production




ACTH is the hormone known to control adrenal cortex function and maintenance in the intact animal but, in culture, it inhibits proliferation of adrenocortical cells from different mammalian species, a puzzle that has remained unsolved for nearly 30 years. In this paper we compare ACTH and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) antagonistic effects on the cell cycle in the Y1 cell line, a functional lineage of mouse adreno-cortical tumor cells. This cell line displays chronic high levels of c-Ki-Ras-GTP, high active constitutive levels of phosphatidylinositol 3-OH kinase/Protein Kinase B (PI3K/AKT) and low constitutive basal expression of c-Myc, which accounts for a minor deregulation of the cell cycle. In G(0)/G(1)-arrested Y1 cells, over-expression of the dominant negative mutant HaRasN17 drastically reduces c-Ki-Ras-GTP levels, eliminating basal c-Myc expression and basal S phase entry. PI3K/Akt seems to be the downstream pathway from c-Ki-ras for deregulation of c-Myc basal expression, since wortmannin abolishes c-Myc expression in serum-starved, G(0)/G(1)-arrested Y1 cells. FGF2 is a strong mitogen for Y1 cells, promoting - in a manner dependent on the MEK/ERK pathway - c-myc transcription induction, c-Myc protein stabilization and S phase entry in G(0)/G(1)-arrested Y1 cells. On the other hand, ACTH causes c-Myc protein destabilization, partially blocking S phase entry induced by FGF2, by a process dependent on the cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) pathway. The whole pathway activated by ACTH to destabilize c-Myc protein in Y1 cells might comprise the following steps: ACTH receptor -->cAMP/PKA --> Akt deactivation -->GSK3 activity liberation --> c-Myc Thr58 phosphorylation.We demonstrate that c-Myc regulation is a central key in the cell cycle control by these factors, since enforced expression of c-Myc through the MycER chimera abrogates the ACTH inhibitory effect over FGF2-induced S phase entry.