CFTR (Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane conductance Regulator) is a member of the ABC protein superfamily. Phosphorylation of a regulatory domain of this protein is a prerequisite for activity. We analyzed the effect of PKA phosphorylation on the structure of purified and reconstituted CFTR protein. 1H/2H exchange monitored by ATR-FTIR demonstrates that CFTR is highly accessible to aqueous medium. Phosphorylation of the regulatory (R) domain by PKA further increases this accessibility. More specifically, fluorescence quenching of cytosolic tryptophan residues revealed that the accessibility of the cytoplasmic part of the protein is modified by phosphorylation. Moreover the combination of polarized IR spectroscopy with 1H/2H exchange suggested an increase of the accessibility of the transmembrane domains of CFTR. This suggests that CFTR phosphorylation can induce a large conformational change that could correspond either to a displacement of the R domain, or to long-range conformational changes transmitted from the phosphorylation sites to the nucleotide binding domains and the transmembrane segments. Such structural changes may provide better access for the solutes to the nucleotide binding domains and the ion binding site.