Flowchart: Preparation: Adenosine A2A Receptor












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Text Box:  Adenosine A2A Receptor



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J Neurosci. 2006 Oct 18;26(42):10808-12.Click here to read  Links

Blockade of adenosine A2A receptors prevents protein phosphorylation in the striatum induced by cortical stimulation.

     Quiroz C, Gomes C, Pak AC, Ribeiro JA, Goldberg SR, Hope BT, Ferre S.

Behavioral Neuroscience Branch, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Intramural Research Program, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA.

Previous studies have shown that cortical stimulation selectively activates extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation and immediate early gene expression in striatal GABAergic enkephalinergic neurons. In the present study, we demonstrate that blockade of adenosine A2A receptors with caffeine or a selective A2A receptor antagonist counteracts the striatal activation of cAMP-protein kinase A cascade (phosphorylation of the Ser845 residue of the glutamate receptor 1 subunit of the AMPA receptor) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK1/2 phosphorylation) induced by the in vivo stimulation of corticostriatal afferents. The results indicate that A2A receptors strongly modulate the efficacy of glutamatergic synapses on striatal enkephalinergic neurons.

PMID: 17050719 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Arthritis Rheum. 2006 Aug;54(8):2632-42.Click here to read  Links

Adenosine A2A receptors in diffuse dermal fibrosis: pathogenic role in human dermal fibroblasts and in a murine model of scleroderma.

     Chan ES, Fernandez P, Merchant AA, Montesinos MC, Trzaska S, Desai A, Tung CF, Khoa DN, Pillinger MH, Reiss AB, Tomic-Canic M, Chen JF, Schwarzschild MA, Cronstein BN.

New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York 10016, USA.

OBJECTIVE: Adenosine regulates inflammation and tissue repair, and adenosine A2A receptors promote wound healing by stimulating collagen matrix production. We therefore examined whether adenosine A2A receptors contribute to the pathogenesis of dermal fibrosis. METHODS: Collagen production by primary human dermal fibroblasts was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction, 14C-proline incorporation, and Sircol assay. Intracellular signaling for dermal collagen production was investigated using inhibitors of MEK-1 and by demonstration of ERK phosphorylation. In vivo effects were studied in a bleomycin-induced dermal fibrosis model using adenosine A2A receptor-deficient wild-type littermate mice, C57BL/6 mice, and mice treated with adenosine A2A receptor antagonist. Morphometric features and levels of hydroxyproline were determined as measures of dermal fibrosis. RESULTS: Adenosine A2A receptor occupancy promoted collagen production by primary human dermal fibroblasts, which was blocked by adenosine A2A, but not A1 or A2B, receptor antagonism. Adenosine A2A receptor ligation stimulated ERK phosphorylation, and A2A receptor-mediated collagen production by dermal fibroblasts was blocked by MEK-1 inhibitors. Adenosine A2A receptor-deficient and A2A receptor antagonist-treated mice were protected from developing bleomycin-induced dermal fibrosis. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that adenosine A2A receptors play an active role in the pathogenesis of dermal fibrosis and suggest a novel therapeutic target in the treatment and prevention of dermal fibrosis in diseases such as scleroderma.

PMID: 16871530 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]