Text Box: ATP 

Text Box: NF-kappa B

Text Box: Tnf-alpha



 Parkison Disease                                   



Text Box: A3 receptor




Text Box: P2Y2





Science. 2006 Dec 15;314(5806):1792-5.Click here to read  Links

ATP release guides neutrophil chemotaxis via P2Y2 and A3 receptors.

·     Chen Y, Corriden R, Inoue Y, Yip L, Hashiguchi N, Zinkernagel A, Nizet V, Insel PA, Junger WG.

Department of Surgery, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA 92103, USA.

Cells must amplify external signals to orient and migrate in chemotactic gradient fields. We find that human neutrophils release adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from the leading edge of the cell surface to amplify chemotactic signals and direct cell orientation by feedback through P2Y2 nucleotide receptors. Neutrophils rapidly hydrolyze released ATP to adenosine that then acts via A3-type adenosine receptors, which are recruited to the leading edge, to promote cell migration. Thus, ATP release and autocrine feedback through P2Y2 and A3 receptors provide signal amplification, controlling gradient sensing and migration of neutrophils.

PMID: 17170310 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

J Rheumatol. 2007 Jan;34(1):20-6.Click here to read  Links

Overexpression of A3 adenosine receptor in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in rheumatoid arthritis: involvement of nuclear factor-kappaB in mediating receptor level.

·     Madi L, Cohen S, Ochayin A, Bar-Yehuda S, Barer F, Fishman P.

Can-Fite BioPharma Ltd., Kiryat-Matalon, Petah-Tikva, Israel.

OBJECTIVE: A3 adenosine receptor (A3AR) upregulation has been found in cells of synovial tissue and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis. We investigated A3AR levels in PBMC of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and in mitogen-activated PBMC from healthy subjects. We examined the role of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), a transcription factor present in the A3AR promoter, in mediating receptor upregulation. METHODS: A3AR and NF-kappaB protein levels were evaluated in PBMC of RA patients (n = 23) and healthy subjects by Western blot. A3AR and NF-kappaB levels were also analyzed in phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated PBMC in the presence and absence of antibodies against interleukin 2 (IL-2) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed in PHA-stimulated PBMC of healthy subjects to determine A3AR expression. RESULTS: A3AR was overexpressed in PBMC of RA patients compared to healthy subjects and was directly correlated to an increase in NF-kappaB. Similar findings were observed in PHA and LPS-stimulated PBMC from healthy subjects. Antibodies against IL-2 or TNF-alpha prevented the increase in A3AR and NF-kappaB expression. CONCLUSION: Overexpression of A3AR was found in PBMC of RA patients. Receptor upregulation was induced by inflammatory cytokines controlling the expression of the A3AR transcription factor NF-kappaB.

PMID: 17216675 [PubMed - in process